New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

A Method For Estimating And Characterizing Explicitly Nonlinear Dynamic Functional Network Connectivity In Resting-State fMRI Data

Wed, 01/18/2023 - 11:00

J Neurosci Methods. 2023 Jan 15:109794. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2023.109794. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The past 10 years have seen an explosion of approaches that focus on the study of time-resolved change in functional connectivity (FC). FC characterization among networks at a whole-brain level is frequently termed functional network connectivity (FNC). Time-resolved or dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) focuses on the estimation of transient, recurring, whole-brain patterns of FNC. While most approaches in this area have attempted to capture dynamic linear correlation, we are particularly interested in whether explicitly nonlinear relationships, above and beyond linear, are present and contain unique information. This study thus proposes an approach to assess explicitly nonlinear dynamic functional network connectivity (EN dFNC) derived from the relationship among independent component analysis time courses. Linear relationships were removed at each time point to evaluate, typically ignored, explicitly nonlinear dFNC using normalized mutual information (NMI). Simulations showed the proposed method estimated explicitly nonlinearity over time, even within relatively short windows of data. We then, applied our approach on 151 schizophrenia patients, and 163 healthy controls fMRI data and found three unique, highly structured, mostly long-range, functional states that also showed significant group differences. In particular, explicitly nonlinear relationships tend to be more widespread than linear ones. Results also highlighted a state with long range connections to the visual domain, which were significantly reduced in schizophrenia. Overall, this work suggests that quantifying EN dFNC may provide a complementary and potentially valuable tool for studying brain function by exposing relevant variation that is typically ignored.

PMID:36652974 | DOI:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2023.109794

Characterizing different cognitive and neurobiological profiles in a community sample of children using a non-parametric approach: An fMRI study

Wed, 01/18/2023 - 11:00

Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2023 Jan 13;60:101198. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2023.101198. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Executive Functions (EF) is an umbrella term for a set of mental processes geared towards goal-directed behavior supporting academic skills such as reading abilities. One of the brain's functional networks implicated in EF is the Default Mode Network (DMN). The current study uses measures of inhibitory control, a main sub-function of EF, to create cognitive and neurobiological "inhibitory control profiles" and relate them to reading abilities in a large sample (N = 5055) of adolescents aged 9-10 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Using a Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) approach, data related to inhibitory control was divided into four inhibition classes. For each class, functional connectivity within the DMN was calculated from resting-state data, using a non-parametric algorithm for detecting group similarities. These inhibitory control profiles were then related to reading abilities. The four inhibitory control groups showed significantly different reading abilities, with neurobiologically different DMN segregation profiles for each class versus controls. The current study demonstrates that a community sample of children is not entirely homogeneous and is composed of different subgroups that can be differentiated both behaviorally/cognitively and neurobiologically, by focusing on inhibitory control and the DMN. Educational implications relating these results to reading abilities are noted.

PMID:36652896 | DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2023.101198

Construction and analysis of functional network of hemi-brain in patients with brain tumors before and after anesthesia based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

Tue, 01/17/2023 - 11:00

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2023 Jan 17;103(3):186-191. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112137-20220519-01112.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct and analyze the functional network changes of hemi-brain in patients with brain tumor before and after anesthesia by using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: A total of 18 right-handed patients were prospectively included (6 males and 12 females). The patients underwent glioma resection in Peking University International Hospital from December 2018 to December 2021, and age ranged from 20 to 65 (45.1±13.6) years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade of Ⅰ-Ⅱ. MRI scans were performed while the patient was awake and at the depth of surgical anesthesia. The functional network of healthy lateral brain was constructed and analyzed by means of graph theory, and its global and local topological properties were calculated. Global topology attributes included global efficiency (Eg), local efficiency (Eloc), clustering parameters (Cp), length parameter of shortest path (Lp), and small world (SW). Topology attributes of nodes included node degree (ND), node efficiency (NE) and between centrality (BC). The global and nodal topological properties of the hemi-brain network were compared between patients with different hemispherical space occupying under wakefulness and anesthesia. Results: At the awake state, Eloc and Cp in the global topological attributes of hemi-brain network were 0.259±0.007 and 0.197±0.010, respectively, and decreased to 0.242±0.013 and 0.177±0.021, respectively after anesthesia, with statistically significant differences (all P<0.01). The topological attributes of the nodes in hemi-side brain showed that ND, NE and BC were increased in the default mode network-related brain regions, while NE and BC were decreased in the limbic system and subcortical structures. Eloc and Cp were 0.258±0.008 and 0.198±0.008 respectively in the patients with left hemisphere space occupying, and decreased to 0.241±0.011 and 0.177±0.015 respectively after anesthesia, with statistically significant differences (all P<0.01). However, only Eloc decreased in patients with right hemisphere space occupying after anesthesia, and Eloc was 0.260±0.006 and 0.243±0.016 respectively when awake and after anesthesia, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The topological attributes of nodes in patients with space occupying in different cerebral hemispheres showed bidirectional changes after anesthesia, and patients with space occupying in the left cerebral hemisphere were more likely to be widely affected after anesthesia. The effects of anesthetic drugs may show hemispheric laterality. If the tumor was in the dominant hemisphere, the compensatory function of the dominant side was more likely to be damaged. Conclusions: During anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness in patients with brain tumors, both the ability to integrate information and the functional connections between local regions are weakened, and some brain regions have functional connection reorganization. The changes of brain network after anesthesia are bidirectional regulation.

PMID:36649989 | DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112137-20220519-01112

Activity flow mapping over probabilistic functional connectivity

Tue, 01/17/2023 - 11:00

Hum Brain Mapp. 2023 Feb 1;44(2):341-361. doi: 10.1002/hbm.26044. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that activity flow over resting-state network topology allows the prediction of task activations. However, previous studies have mainly adopted static, linear functional connectivity (FC) estimates as activity flow routes. It is unclear whether an intrinsic network topology that captures the dynamic nature of FC can be a better representation of activity flow routes. Moreover, the effects of between- versus within-network connections and tight versus loose (using rest baseline) task contrasts on the prediction of task-evoked activity across brain systems remain largely unknown. In this study, we first propose a probabilistic FC estimation derived from a dynamic framework as a new activity flow route. Subsequently, activity flow mapping was tested using between- and within-network connections separately for each region as well as using a set of tight task contrasts. Our results showed that probabilistic FC routes substantially improved individual-level activity flow prediction. Although it provided better group-level prediction, the multiple regression approach was more dependent on the length of data points at the individual-level prediction. Regardless of FC type, we consistently observed that between-network connections showed a relatively higher prediction performance in higher-order cognitive control than in primary sensorimotor systems. Furthermore, cognitive control systems exhibit a remarkable increase in prediction accuracy with tight task contrasts and a decrease in sensorimotor systems. This work demonstrates that probabilistic FC estimates are promising routes for activity flow mapping and also uncovers divergent influences of connectional topology and task contrasts on activity flow prediction across brain systems with different functional hierarchies.

PMID:36647263 | DOI:10.1002/hbm.26044

Short-term Medication Effects on Brain Functional Activity and Network Architecture in First-Episode psychosis: a longitudinal fMRI study

Mon, 01/16/2023 - 11:00

Brain Imaging Behav. 2023 Jan 17. doi: 10.1007/s11682-022-00704-y. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The effect of antipsychotic medications is critical for the long-term outcome of symptoms and functions during first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, how brain functions respond to the antipsychotic treatment in the early stage of psychosis and its underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we explored the cross-sectional and longitudinal changes of regional homogeneity (ReHo), whole-brain functional connectivity, and network topological properties via resting-state functional magnetic resonance images. Thirty-two drug-naïve FEP patients and 30 matched healthy volunteers (HV) were included, where 23 patients were re-visited with effective responses after two months of antipsychotic treatment. Compared to HV, drug-naive patients demonstrated significantly different patterns of functional connectivity involving the right thalamus. These functional alterations mainly involved decreased ReHo, increased nodal efficiency in the right thalamus, and increased thalamic-sensorimotor-frontoparietal connectivity. In the follow-up analysis, patients after treatment showed reduced ReHo and nodal clustering in visual networks, as well as disturbances of visual-somatomotor and hippocampus-superior frontal gyrus connectivity. The longitudinal changes of ReHo in the visual cortex were associated with an improvement in general psychotic symptoms. This study provides new evidence regarding alterations in brain function linked to schizophrenia onset and affected by antipsychotic medications. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the functional alterations at baseline were not fully modulated by antipsychotic medications, suggesting that antipsychotic medications may reduce psychotic symptoms but limit the effects in regions involved in disease pathophysiology.

PMID:36646973 | DOI:10.1007/s11682-022-00704-y

Ketamine-induced hippocampal functional connectivity alterations associated with clinical remission in major depression

Mon, 01/16/2023 - 11:00

J Affect Disord. 2023 Jan 13:S0165-0327(23)00009-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.003. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) alterations, which may happen following ketamine treatment, play a key role in major depression remission. This study aims to investigate the resting-state FC changes of the hippocampus associated with clinical remission after repeated ketamine infusions.

METHODS: Forty-four major depressive patients received six intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) infusions in 12 days. The FC change of the hippocampus subregions following ketamine treatment was compared between remitters (MADRS score ≤ 10 post-treatment) and nonremitters. We also investigated whether baseline hippocampus FC predicted the antidepressant efficiency of ketamine using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve analyses.

RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were included in the analysis. There were significant differences in change of left rostral hippocampus FC with the right angular gyrus (the key node of the default mode network, DMN), left inferior parietal cortex and the right superior parietal cortex (parts of the dorsal attention network, dAN) between remitters and nonremitters following ketamine treatment. Specifically, while the remitters showed significantly less negative hippocampus FC than the nonremitters at baseline, the FC significantly decreased in remitters but increased in nonremitters after ketamine injections. Moreover, baseline hippocampus FC with the above three regions predicted the antidepressant effect of ketamine, with the highest predictive strength identified in the hippocampus-right angular gyrus FC (Area-Under-Curve = 0.8179, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Ketamine treat depression by modulating the left rostral hippocampus resting-state FC with the DMN and dAN. The FC between the hippocampus and parts of the DMN and dAN may show promising potential in predicting remission after ketamine treatment in MDD.

PMID:36646174 | DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.003

Multimodality imaging of neurodegenerative disorders with a focus on multiparametric magnetic resonance and molecular imaging

Mon, 01/16/2023 - 11:00

Insights Imaging. 2023 Jan 16;14(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s13244-022-01358-6.

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases afflict a large number of persons worldwide, with the prevalence and incidence of dementia rapidly increasing. Despite their prevalence, clinical diagnosis of dementia syndromes remains imperfect with limited specificity. Conventional structural-based imaging techniques also lack the accuracy necessary for confident diagnosis. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and molecular imaging provide the promise of improving specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease as well as therapeutic monitoring of monoclonal antibody therapy. This educational review will briefly focus on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathologic findings of common and uncommon neurodegenerative diseases. Imaging features of each disease spanning from conventional magnetic resonance sequences to advanced multiparametric methods such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and arterial spin labeling imaging will be described in detail. Additionally, the review will explore the findings of each diagnosis on molecular imaging including single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography with a variety of clinically used and experimental radiotracers. The literature and clinical cases provided demonstrate the power of advanced magnetic resonance imaging and molecular techniques in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and areas of future and ongoing research. With the advent of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scanners, hybrid protocols utilizing both techniques are an attractive option for improving the evaluation of neurodegenerative diseases.

PMID:36645560 | DOI:10.1186/s13244-022-01358-6

Age-dependent changes in the dynamic functional organization of the brain at rest: a cross-cultural replication approach

Sun, 01/15/2023 - 11:00

Cereb Cortex. 2023 Jan 14:bhac512. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhac512. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in brain function play an important role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Although previous work has examined age-related changes in static functional connectivity, accumulating evidence suggests that advancing age is especially associated with alterations in the dynamic interactions and transitions between different brain states, which hitherto have received less attention. Conclusions of previous studies in this domain are moreover limited by suboptimal replicability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and culturally homogenous cohorts. Here, we investigate the robustness of age-associated changes in dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) by capitalizing on the availability of fMRI cohorts from two cultures (Western European and Chinese). In both the LEMON (Western European) and SALD (Chinese) cohorts, we consistently identify two distinct states: a more frequent segregated within-network connectivity state (state I) and a less frequent integrated between-network connectivity state (state II). Moreover, in both these cohorts, older (55-80 years) compared to younger participants (20-35 years) exhibited lower occurrence of and spent less time in state I. Older participants also tended to exhibit more transitions between networks and greater variance in global efficiency. Overall, our cross-cultural replication of age-associated changes in dFC metrics implies that advancing age is robustly associated with a reorganization of dynamic brain activation that favors the use of less functionally specific networks.

PMID:36642496 | DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhac512

Characterization of Hemodynamic Alteration in Parkinson's Disease and Effect on Resting-State Connectivity

Sun, 01/15/2023 - 11:00

Neuroscience. 2023 Jan 12:S0306-4522(23)00006-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2023.01.001. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a convolution of latent neural activity and the hemodynamic response function (HRF). According to prior studies, the neurodegenerative process in idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) interacts significantly with neuromuscular abnormalities. Although these underlying neuromuscular changes might influence the temporal characteristics of HRF and fMRI signals, relatively few studies have explored this possibility. We hypothesized that such alterations would engender changes in estimated functional connectivity (FC) in fMRI space compared to latent neural space. To test these theories, we calculated voxel-level HRFs by deconvolving resting-state fMRI data from PD patients (n = 61) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 47). Significant group differences in HRF (P < 0.05, Gaussian random field-corrected) were observed in several regions previously associated with PD. Subsequently, we focused on putamen-seed-based FC differences between the PD and HC groups using fMRI and latent neural signals. The results suggested that neglecting HRF variability may cultivate false-positive and false-negative FC group differences. Furthermore, HRF was related to dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) gene expression (P < 0.001, t = -7.06, false discover rate-corrected). Taken together, these findings reveal HRF variation and its possible underlying molecular mechanism in PD, and suggest that deconvolution could reduce the impact of HRF variation on FC group differences.

PMID:36642395 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2023.01.001

Immediate modulatory effects of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on the resting state of major depressive disorder

Sun, 01/15/2023 - 11:00

J Affect Disord. 2023 Jan 12:S0165-0327(23)00047-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.035. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is clinically effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), and its efficacy mechanism is related to modulation of the default mode network (DMN) and cognitive control network (CCN). However, the mechanism of the immediate effect of taVNS for MDD remains to be elucidated.

METHODS: A total of 58 patients with MDD and 54 healthy controls(HCs) were included in this study. The MDD group was treated with taVNS for 30 min (20 Hz, 4-6 mA) immediately, and we observed amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) abnormalities in the MDD group and changes in ALFF and functional connectivity (FC) before and after immediate treatment. The ALFF brain regions altered by taVNS induction were used as regions of interest to analyze whole-brain FC changes in the MDD group.

RESULTS: After taVNS treatment, ALFF in the right precuneus was decreased in the MDD group. The FC of the right precuneus with the left middle frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate gyrus and the left angular gyrus were decreased in the MDD group. Correlation analysis showed that the FC values between the right precuneus and the left posterior cingulate gyrus in the pre-treatment MDD group was negatively correlated with the 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale scores.

CONCLUSION: TaVNS has an immediate modulatory effect on DMN and CCN. It would be proposed that these functional networks may be effective targets for the long-term treatment of MDD patients with taVNS.

PMID:36642310 | DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.035

Integrating functional neuroimaging and serum proteins improves the diagnosis of major depressive disorder

Sun, 01/15/2023 - 11:00

J Affect Disord. 2023 Jan 12:S0165-0327(23)00044-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.034. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lack of effective objective diagnostic biomarkers for major depressive disorder (MDD) leads to high misdiagnosis. Compared with healthy controls (HC), abnormal brain functions and protein levels are often observed in MDD. However, it is unclear whether combining these changed multidimensional indicators could help improve the diagnosis of MDD.

METHODS: Sixty-three MDD and 81 HC subjects underwent resting-state fMRI scans, among whom 37 MDD and 45 HC provided blood samples. Amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortisol, and multiple cytokines were measured and put into the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to construct corresponding MDD diagnostic models. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 5-fold cross-validation was calculated to evaluate each model's performance.

RESULTS: Compared with HC, MDD patients' spontaneous brain activity, serum BDNF, cortisol, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10 levels changed significantly. The combinations of unidimensional multi-indicator had better diagnostic performance than a single one. The model consisted of multidimensional multi-indicator further exhibited conspicuously superior diagnostic efficiency than those constructed with unidimensional multi-indicator, and its AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 5-fold cross-validation were 0.99, 92.0 %, 100.0 %, and 96.3 %, respectively.

LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional study consists of relatively small samples and should be replicated in larger samples with follow-up data to optimize the diagnostic model.

CONCLUSIONS: MDD patients' neuroimaging features and serum protein levels significantly changed. The model revealed by LDA could diagnose MDD with high accuracy, which may serve as an ideal diagnostic biomarker for MDD.

PMID:36642308 | DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.034

Structural and functional features of treatment-resistant depression: A systematic review and exploratory coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

Sun, 01/15/2023 - 11:00

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2023 Jan 15. doi: 10.1111/pcn.13530. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A third of people suffering from major depressive disorder do not experience a significant improvement in their symptoms even after adequate treatment with two different antidepressant medications. This common condition, termed treatment-resistant depression (TRD), severely affects the quality of life of millions of people worldwide, causing long-lasting interpersonal problems and social costs. Given its epidemiological and clinical relevance and the little consensus on whether the neurobiological underpinnings of TRD differ from treatment-sensitive depression (TSD), we sought to highlight the convergent morphometric and functional neuroimaging correlates of TRD.

METHODS: We systematically reviewed the published literature on structural and resting-state functional neuroimaging of TRD compared to TSD and healthy controls (HC) and performed exploratory coordinate-based meta-analyses (CBMA) of significant results separately for each modality and multimodally ("all-effects"). CBMAs were also performed for each direction and combining both directions of group contrasts.

RESULTS: Out of the initial 1929 studies, only eight involving 555 participants (189 patients with TRD, 156 with TSD, and 210 HC) were included. In all-effects CBMA, precentral/superior frontal gyrus showed a significant difference between TRD and HC. Functional and structural imaging meta-analyses did not yield statistically significant results. A marginally significant cluster of altered intrinsic activity was found between TRD and HC in the cerebellum/pons.

CONCLUSIONS: Frontal, cerebellar, and brainstem functions can be involved in the pathophysiology of TRD. However, the design and heterogeneity of the (scarce) published literature hinder the generalizability of the findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID:36641802 | DOI:10.1111/pcn.13530

Cognitive and clinical correlates of resting-state fMRI in adults with gambling disorder

Sat, 01/14/2023 - 11:00

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2023 Jan 12;68:30-32. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2022.12.007. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:36640731 | DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2022.12.007

Brain correlates of subjective cognitive complaints in COVID-19 survivors: A multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study

Sat, 01/14/2023 - 11:00

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2022 Dec 12;68:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2022.12.002. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment represents a leading residual symptom of COVID-19 infection, which lasts for months after the virus clearance. Up-to-date scientific reports documented a wide spectrum of brain changes in COVID-19 survivors following the illness's resolution, mainly related to neurological and neuropsychiatric consequences. Preliminary insights suggest abnormal brain metabolism, microstructure, and functionality as neural under-layer of post-acute cognitive dysfunction. While previous works focused on brain correlates of impaired cognition as objectively assessed, herein we investigated long-term neural correlates of subjective cognitive decline in a sample of 58 COVID-19 survivors with a multimodal imaging approach. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) analyses revealed widespread white matter disruption in the sub-group of cognitive complainers compared to the non-complainer one, as indexed by increased axial, radial, and mean diffusivity in several commissural, projection and associative fibres. Likewise, the Multivoxel Pattern Connectivity analysis (MVPA) revealed highly discriminant patterns of functional connectivity in resting-state among the two groups in the right frontal pole and in the middle temporal gyrus, suggestive of inefficient dynamic modulation of frontal brain activity and possible metacognitive dysfunction at rest. Beyond COVID-19 actual pathophysiological brain processes, our findings point toward brain connectome disruption conceivably translating into clinical post-COVID cognitive symptomatology. Our results could pave the way for a potential brain signature of cognitive complaints experienced by COVID-19 survivors, possibly leading to identify early therapeutic targets and thus mitigating its detrimental long-term impact on quality of life in the post-COVID-19 stages.

PMID:36640728 | DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2022.12.002

Effect and cerebral mechanism of moxibustion at heat-sensitized Yaoyangguan (GV3) in patients with lumbar disc herniation and myofascial pain syndrome by resting-state functionality magnetic resonance imaging: protocol for an observational study

Sat, 01/14/2023 - 11:00

J Tradit Chin Med. 2023 Feb;43(1):175-180. doi: 10.19852/j.cnki.jtcm.20221006.002.

ABSTRACT

We want to explore the analgesic brain effect of the moxibustion at heat-sensitized Yaoyangguan (GV3) in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). In an assessor-blinded observational study, we will include 15 LDH and 15 MPS. They will accept same treatment of heat-sensitive moxibustion at Yaoyangguan (GV3). The resting-state functionality magnetic resonance imaging image data of brain activities before and after treatment will be analyzed by mean fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, regional homogeneity analysis and brain functional connection. We select seed of first sensory cortex, second sensory cortex, insula cortex, periaqueductal gray and anterior cingulate cortex as the regions of interest to analyse the relationship between brain functional connectivity of pain-related networks and clinical data. Our study could disclose key brain targets and central response characteristics of the analgesic brain effect and the brain functional connection of heat-sensitive moxibustion.

PMID:36640010 | DOI:10.19852/j.cnki.jtcm.20221006.002

Prolonged microgravity induces reversible and persistent changes on human cerebral connectivity

Fri, 01/13/2023 - 11:00

Commun Biol. 2023 Jan 13;6(1):46. doi: 10.1038/s42003-022-04382-w.

ABSTRACT

The prospect of continued manned space missions warrants an in-depth understanding of how prolonged microgravity affects the human brain. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can pinpoint changes reflecting adaptive neuroplasticity across time. We acquired resting-state fMRI data of cosmonauts before, shortly after, and eight months after spaceflight as a follow-up to assess global connectivity changes over time. Our results show persisting connectivity decreases in posterior cingulate cortex and thalamus and persisting increases in the right angular gyrus. Connectivity in the bilateral insular cortex decreased after spaceflight, which reversed at follow-up. No significant connectivity changes across eight months were found in a matched control group. Overall, we show that altered gravitational environments influence functional connectivity longitudinally in multimodal brain hubs, reflecting adaptations to unfamiliar and conflicting sensory input in microgravity. These results provide insights into brain functional modifications occurring during spaceflight, and their further development when back on Earth.

PMID:36639420 | DOI:10.1038/s42003-022-04382-w

The association of genetic variation in CACNA1C with resting-state functional connectivity in youth bipolar disorder

Fri, 01/13/2023 - 11:00

Int J Bipolar Disord. 2023 Jan 13;11(1):3. doi: 10.1186/s40345-022-00281-5.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CACNA1C rs1006737 A allele, identified as a genetic risk variant for bipolar disorder (BD), is associated with anomalous functional connectivity in adults with and without BD. Studies have yet to investigate the association of CACNA1C rs1006737 with resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in youth BD.

METHODS: Participants included 139 youth with BD-I, -II, or -not otherwise specified, ages 13-20 years, including 27 BD A-carriers, 41 BD non-carriers, 32 healthy controls (HC) A-carriers, and 39 HC non-carriers. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were examined as regions-of-interest in seed-to-voxel analyses. General linear models included main effects of diagnosis and rs1006737, and an interaction term, controlling for age, sex, and race.

RESULTS: We observed a main effect of BD diagnosis on rsFC between the right amygdala and the right occipital pole (p = 0.02), and a main effect of rs1006737 genotypes on rsFC between the right OFC and bilateral occipital cortex (p < 0.001). Two significant BD diagnosis-by-CACNA1C rs1006737 interactions were also identified. The A allele was associated with positive rsFC between the right ACC and right amygdala in BD but negative rsFC in HC (p = 0.01), and negative rsFC between the left OFC and left putamen in BD but positive rsFC in HC (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSION: This study found that the rs1006737 A allele, identified as a genetic risk variant for BD in adults, was differentially associated with rsFC in youth with BD in regions relevant to emotion, executive function, and reward. Future task-based approaches are warranted to better understand brain connectivity in relation to CACNA1C in BD.

PMID:36637564 | DOI:10.1186/s40345-022-00281-5

Evaluating test-retest reliability and sex-/age-related effects on temporal clustering coefficient of dynamic functional brain networks

Fri, 01/13/2023 - 11:00

Hum Brain Mapp. 2023 Jan 13. doi: 10.1002/hbm.26202. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The multilayer dynamic network model has been proposed as an effective method to understand the brain function. In particular, derived from the definition of clustering coefficient in static networks, the temporal clustering coefficient provides a direct measure of the topological stability of dynamic brain networks and shows potential in predicting altered brain functions. However, test-retest reliability and demographic-related effects on this measure remain to be evaluated. Using a data set from the Human Connectome Project (157 male and 180 female healthy adults; 22-37 years old), the present study investigated: (1) the test-retest reliability of temporal clustering coefficient across four repeated resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); and (2) sex- and age-related effects on temporal clustering coefficient. The results showed that (1) the temporal clustering coefficient had overall moderate test-retest reliability (ICC > 0.40 over a wide range of densities) at both global and subnetwork levels, (2) female subjects showed significantly higher temporal clustering coefficient than males at both global and subnetwork levels, particularly within the default-mode and subcortical regions, and (3) temporal clustering coefficient of the subcortical subnetwork was positively correlated with age in young adults. The results of sex effects were robustly replicated in an independent REST-meta-MDD data set, while the results of age effects were not. Our findings suggest that the temporal clustering coefficient is a relatively reliable and reproducible approach for identifying individual differences in brain function, and provide evidence for demographically related effects on the human brain dynamic connectomes.

PMID:36637216 | DOI:10.1002/hbm.26202

Trait- and State-Dependent Changes in Cortical-Subcortical Functional Networks Across the Adult Lifespan

Fri, 01/13/2023 - 11:00

J Magn Reson Imaging. 2023 Jan 13. doi: 10.1002/jmri.28599. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: How the functional interactions of the basal ganglia/thalamus with the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum change over the adult lifespan in movie-watching and resting-state is less clear.

PURPOSE: To investigate the functional changes in the organization of the human cortical-subcortical functional networks over the adult lifespan using movie-watching and resting-state fMRI data.

STUDY TYPE: Cohort.

SUBJECTS: Healthy 467 adults (cross-sectional individuals aged 18-88 years) from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (www.cam-can.com). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: fMRI using a gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence at 3 T.

ASSESSMENT: Functional connectivities (FCs) of the subcortical subregions (i.e. the basal ganglia and thalamus) with both the cerebral cortex and cerebellum were examined in fMRI data acquired during resting state and movie-watching. And, fluid intelligence scores were also assessed.

STATISTICAL TESTS: Student's t-tests, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected.

RESULTS: As age increased, FCs that mainly within the basal ganglia and thalamus, and between the basal ganglia/thalamus and cortical networks (including the dorsal attention, ventral attention, and limbic networks) were both increased/decreased during movie-watching and resting states. However, FCs showed a state-dependent component with advancing age. During the movie-watching state, the FCs between the basal ganglia/thalamus and cerebellum/frontoparietal control networks were mainly increased with age, and the FCs in the somatomotor network were decreased with age. During the resting state, the FCs between the basal ganglia/thalamus and default mode/visual networks were mainly increased with age, and the FCs in the cerebellum were mainly decreased with age. Moreover, inverse relationships between FCs and fluid intelligence were mainly found in these network regions.

DATA CONCLUSION: Our study may suggest that changes in cortical-subcortical functional networks across the adult lifespan were both state-dependent and stable traits, and that aging fMRI studies should consider the effects of both physiological characteristics and individual situations.

EVIDENCE LEVEL: 2.

TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.

PMID:36637029 | DOI:10.1002/jmri.28599

Early Family Intervention for Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder: Psychosocial and Neural Mediators of Outcome

Fri, 01/13/2023 - 11:00

Curr Neuropharmacol. 2023 Jan 11. doi: 10.2174/1570159X21666230111120817. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impairing neurodevelopmental course of bipolar disorder (BD) suggests the importance of early intervention for youth in the beginning phases of the illness.

OBJECTIVE: We report the results of a 3-site randomized trial of family-focused therapy for youth at high-risk (FFT-HR) for BD, and explore psychosocial and neuroimaging variables as mediators of treatment effects.

METHODS: High-risk youth (&lt;18 years) with major depressive disorder or other specified BD, active mood symptoms, and a family history of BD were randomly assigned to 4 months of FFT- HR (psychoeducation, communication and problem-solving skills training) or 4 months of enhanced care psychoeducation. Adjunctive pharmacotherapy was provided by study psychiatrists. Neuroimaging scans were conducted before and after psychosocial treatments in eligible participants. Independent evaluators interviewed participants every 4-6 months over 1-4 years regarding symptomatic outcomes.

RESULTS: Among 127 youth (mean 13.2+2.6 years) over a median of 98 weeks, FFT-HR was associated with longer intervals prior to new mood episodes and lower levels of suicidal ideation than enhanced care. Reductions in perceived family conflict mediated the effects of psychosocial interventions on the course of mood symptoms. Among 34 participants with pre- /post-treatment fMRI scans, youth in FFT-HR had (a) stronger resting state connectivity between ventrolateral PFC and anterior default mode network, and (b) increased activity of dorsolateral and medial PFC in emotion processing and problem-solving tasks, compared to youth in enhanced care.

CONCLUSION: FFT-HR may delay new mood episodes in symptomatic youth with familial liability to BD. Putative treatment mechanisms include neural adaptations suggestive of improved emotion regulation.

PMID:36635932 | DOI:10.2174/1570159X21666230111120817

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