New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

Preoperative pain hypersensitivity is associated with axial pain after posterior cervical spinal surgeries in degenerative cervical myelopathy patients: a preliminary resting-state fMRI study

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Insights Imaging. 2023 Jan 24;14(1):16. doi: 10.1186/s13244-022-01332-2.


OBJECTIVE: To test whether preoperative pain sensitivity is associated with the postoperative axial pain (PAP) in degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) and to explore its underlying brain mechanism.

METHODS: Clinical data and resting-state fMRI data of 62 DCM patients along with 60 age/gender matched healthy participants were collected and analysed. Voxel-wise amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was computed and compared between DCM patients and healthy controls. Correlation analyses were performed to reveal the association between the clinical metrics and brain alterations. Clinical data and ALFF were also compared between DCM patients with PAP and without PAP.

RESULTS: (1) Relative to healthy participants, DCM patients exhibited significantly lower preoperative pain threshold which is associated with the PAP intensity; (2) Relative to patients without PAP, PAP patients exhibited increased ALFF in mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) and lower preoperative pain threshold; (3) Further, multivariate pattern analysis revealed that MCC ALFF provide additional value for PAP vs. non-PAP classification.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our findings suggest that preoperative pain hypersensitivity may be associated with postoperative axial pain in degenerative cervical myelopathy patients. This finding may inspire new therapeutic ideas for patients with preoperative axial pain.

PMID:36690763 | DOI:10.1186/s13244-022-01332-2

Heart failure decouples the precuneus in interaction with social cognition and executive functions

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Sci Rep. 2023 Jan 23;13(1):1236. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-28338-0.


Aging increases the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Cardiovascular diseases might accelerate this process. Our study aimed at investigating the impact of heart failure on brain connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging at resting state. Here we show brain connectivity alterations related to heart failure and cognitive performance. Heart failure decreases brain connectivity in the precuneus. Precuneus dysconnectivity was associated with biomarkers of heart failure-left ventricular ejection fraction and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide-and cognitive performance, predominantly executive function. Meta-analytical data-mining approaches-conducted in the BrainMap and Neurosynth databases-revealed that social and executive cognitive functions are mainly associated with those neural networks. Remarkably, the precuneus, as identified in our study in a mid-life cohort, represents one central functional hub affected by Alzheimer's disease. A long-term follow-up investigation in our cohort after approximately nine years revealed more severe cognitive impairment in the group with heart failure than controls, where social cognition was the cognitive domain mainly affected, and not memory such as in Alzheimer's disease. In sum, our results indicate consistently an association between heart failure and decoupling of the precuneus from other brain regions being associated with social and executive functions. Further longitudinal studies are warranted elucidating etiopathological mechanisms.

PMID:36690723 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-023-28338-0

Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Derived Microvascular Perfusion Modeling to Assess Peripheral Artery Disease

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

J Am Heart Assoc. 2023 Jan 23:e027649. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.122.027649. Online ahead of print.


Background Computational fluid dynamics has shown good agreement with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging measurements in cardiovascular disease applications. We have developed a biomechanical model of microvascular perfusion using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities derived from skeletal calf muscles to study peripheral artery disease (PAD). Methods and Results The computational microvascular model was used to study skeletal calf muscle perfusion in 56 individuals (36 patients with PAD, 20 matched controls). The recruited participants underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and ankle-brachial index testing at rest and after 6-minute treadmill walking. We have determined associations of microvascular model parameters including the transfer rate constant, a measure of vascular leakiness; the interstitial permeability to fluid flow which reflects the permeability of the microvasculature; porosity, a measure of the fraction of the extracellular space; the outflow filtration coefficient; and the microvascular pressure with known markers of patients with PAD. Transfer rate constant, interstitial permeability to fluid flow, and microvascular pressure were higher, whereas porosity and outflow filtration coefficient were lower in patients with PAD than those in matched controls (all P values ≤0.014). In pooled analyses of all participants, the model parameters (transfer rate constant, interstitial permeability to fluid flow, porosity, outflow filtration coefficient, microvascular pressure) were significantly associated with the resting and exercise ankle-brachial indexes, claudication onset time, and peak walking time (all P values ≤0.013). Among patients with PAD, interstitial permeability to fluid flow, and microvascular pressure were higher, while porosity and outflow filtration coefficient were lower in treadmill noncompleters compared with treadmill completers (all P values ≤0.001). Conclusions Computational microvascular model parameters differed significantly between patients with PAD and matched controls. Thus, computational microvascular modeling could be of interest in studying lower extremity ischemia.

PMID:36688362 | DOI:10.1161/JAHA.122.027649

Evaluating the treatment outcomes of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Front Aging Neurosci. 2023 Jan 6;14:1070535. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.1070535. eCollection 2022.


The repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) shows great potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its treatment efficacy for AD patients in moderate to severe stage is relatively evaluated. Here, we proposed a randomized, sham-controlled, clinical trial of rTMS among 35 moderate-to-severe AD patients. A high frequency (10 Hz) stimulation of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 60-session long treatment lasting for 3 months procedure was adopted in the trial. Each participant completed a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline and post-treatment for evaluation of the rTMS therapeutic effect. Twelve of them completed baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for exploration of the underlying neural contribution to individual difference in treatment outcomes. The result showed that the rTMS treatment significantly improved cognitive performance on the severe impairment battery (SIB), reduced psychiatric symptoms on the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), and improved the clinician's global impression of change (CIBIC-Plus). Furthermore, the result preliminarily proposed resting-state multivariate functional connectivity in the (para) hippocampal region as well as two clusters in the frontal and occipital cortices as a pre-treatment neuroimaging marker for predicting individual differences in treatment outcomes. The finding could brought some enlightenment and reference for the rTMS treatment of moderate and severe AD patients.

PMID:36688172 | PMC:PMC9853407 | DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2022.1070535

Decreased default mode network functional connectivity with visual processing regions as potential biomarkers for delayed neurocognitive recovery: A resting-state fMRI study and machine-learning analysis

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Front Aging Neurosci. 2023 Jan 6;14:1109485. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.1109485. eCollection 2022.


OBJECTIVES: The abnormal functional connectivity (FC) pattern of default mode network (DMN) may be key markers for early identification of various cognitive disorders. However, the whole-brain FC changes of DMN in delayed neurocognitive recovery (DNR) are still unclear. Our study was aimed at exploring the whole-brain FC patterns of all regions in DMN and the potential features as biomarkers for the prediction of DNR using machine-learning algorithms.

METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted before surgery on 74 patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Seed-based whole-brain FC with 18 core regions located in the DMN was performed, and FC features that were statistically different between the DNR and non-DNR patients after false discovery correction were extracted. Afterward, based on the extracted FC features, machine-learning algorithms such as support vector machine, logistic regression, decision tree, and random forest were established to recognize DNR. The machine learning experiment procedure mainly included three following steps: feature standardization, parameter adjustment, and performance comparison. Finally, independent testing was conducted to validate the established prediction model. The algorithm performance was evaluated by a permutation test.

RESULTS: We found significantly decreased DMN connectivity with the brain regions involved in visual processing in DNR patients than in non-DNR patients. The best result was obtained from the random forest algorithm based on the 20 decision trees (estimators). The random forest model achieved the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 84.0, 63.1, and 89.5%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the classifier reached 86.4%. The feature that contributed the most to the random forest model was the FC between the left retrosplenial cortex/posterior cingulate cortex and left precuneus.

CONCLUSION: The decreased FC of DMN with regions involved in visual processing might be effective markers for the prediction of DNR and could provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of DNR.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: : Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-DCD-15006096.

PMID:36688167 | PMC:PMC9853194 | DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2022.1109485

Olfactory functional covariance connectivity in Parkinson's disease: Evidence from a Chinese population

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Front Aging Neurosci. 2023 Jan 4;14:1071520. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.1071520. eCollection 2022.


INTRODUCTION: Central anosmia is a potential marker of the prodrome and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that olfactory dysfunction is related to abnormal changes in central olfactory-related structures in patients with early PD.

METHODS: This study, which was conducted at Guanyun People's Hospital, analyzed the resting-state functional magnetic resonance data using the functional covariance connection strength method to decode the functional connectivity between the white-gray matter in a Chinese population comprising 14 patients with PD and 13 controls.

RESULTS: The following correlations were observed in patients with PD: specific gray matter areas related to smell (i.e., the brainstem, right cerebellum, right temporal fusiform cortex, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right Insula, left frontal pole and right superior parietal lobule) had abnormal connections with white matter fiber bundles (i.e., the left posterior thalamic radiation, bilateral posterior corona radiata, bilateral superior corona radiata and right superior longitudinal fasciculus); the connection between the brainstem [region of interest (ROI) 1] and right cerebellum (ROI2) showed a strong correlation. Right posterior corona radiation (ROI11) showed a strong correlation with part 2 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (ROI14) showed a strong correlation with parts 1, 2, and 3 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr Scale.

DISCUSSION: The characteristics of olfactory-related brain networks can be potentially used as neuroimaging biomarkers for characterizing PD states. In the future, dynamic testing of olfactory function may help improve the accuracy and specificity of olfactory dysfunction in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

PMID:36688163 | PMC:PMC9846552 | DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2022.1071520

Abnormal functional connectivity of the frontostriatal circuits in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Front Aging Neurosci. 2023 Jan 4;14:1055172. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.1055172. eCollection 2022.


BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder associated with an increased incidence of cognitive and emotional disorders. Previous studies have indicated that the frontostriatal circuits play a significant role in brain disorders. However, few studies have investigated functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities in the frontostriatal circuits in T2DM.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the abnormal functional connectivity (FC) of the frontostriatal circuits in patients with T2DM and to explore the relationship between abnormal FC and diabetes-related variables.

METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with T2DM were selected as the patient group, and 27 healthy peoples were selected as the healthy controls (HCs). The two groups were matched for age and sex. In addition, all subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and neuropsychological evaluation. Seed-based FC analyses were performed by placing six bilateral pairs of seeds within a priori defined subdivisions of the striatum. The functional connection strength of subdivisions of the striatum was compared between the two groups and correlated with each clinical variable.

RESULTS: Patients with T2DM showed abnormalities in the FC of the frontostriatal circuits. Our findings show significantly reduced FC between the right caudate nucleus and left precentral gyrus (LPCG) in the patients with T2DM compared to the HCs. The FC between the prefrontal cortex (left inferior frontal gyrus, left frontal pole, right frontal pole, and right middle frontal gyrus) and the right caudate nucleus has a significant positive correlation with fasting blood glucose (FBG).

CONCLUSION: The results showed abnormal FC of the frontostriatal circuits in T2DM patients, which might provide a new direction to investigate the neuropathological mechanisms of T2DM.

PMID:36688158 | PMC:PMC9846649 | DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2022.1055172

Altered spontaneous brain activity during dobutamine challenge in healthy young adults: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Front Neurosci. 2023 Jan 6;16:1033569. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2022.1033569. eCollection 2022.


INTRODUCTION: There is a growing interest in exploring brain-heart interactions. However, few studies have investigated the brain-heart interactions in healthy populations, especially in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to explore the association between cardiovascular and spontaneous brain activities during dobutamine infusion in healthy young adults.

METHODS: Forty-eight right-handed healthy participants (43 males and 5 females, range: 22-34 years) underwent vital signs monitoring, cognitive function assessment and brain MRI scans. Cardiovascular function was evaluated using blood pressure and heart rate, while two resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) methods-regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)-were used together to reflect the local neural activity of the brain. Logistic regression was used to model the association between brain and heart.

RESULTS: Results showed that blood pressure and heart rate significantly increased after dobutamine infusion, and the performance in brain functional activity was the decrease in ReHo in the left gyrus rectus and in ALFF in the left frontal superior orbital. The results of logistic regression showed that the difference of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) had significant positive relationship with the degree of change of ReHo, while the difference of systolic blood pressure (SBP) had significant negative impact on the degree of change in ALFF.

DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that the brain-heart interactions exist in healthy young adults under acute cardiovascular alterations, and more attention should be paid to blood pressure changes in young adults and assessment of frontal lobe function to provide them with more effective health protection management.

PMID:36685245 | PMC:PMC9853379 | DOI:10.3389/fnins.2022.1033569

Alterations in brain structure and function associated with pediatric growth hormone deficiency: A multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging study

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Front Neurosci. 2023 Jan 6;16:1043857. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2022.1043857. eCollection 2022.


INTRODUCTION: Pediatric growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a disease resulting from impaired growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis but the effects of GHD on children's cognitive function, brain structure and brain function were not yet fully illustrated.

METHODS: Full Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were assessed in 11 children with GHD and 10 matched healthy controls.

RESULTS: (1) The GHD group showed moderate cognitive impairment, and a positive correlation existed between IGF-1 levels and cognitive indices. (2) Mean diffusivity was significantly increased in both corticospinal tracts in GHD group. (3) There were significant positive correlations between IGF-1 levels and volume metrics of left thalamus, left pallidum and right putamen but a negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and cortical thickness of the occipital lobe. And IGF-1 levels negatively correlated with fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and right corticospinal tract. (4) Regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus was negatively correlated with IGF-1 levels; the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and ReHo in the paracentral lobe, postcentral gyrus and precentral gyrus were also negatively correlated with IGF-1 levels, in which region ALFF fully mediates the effect of IGF-1 on working memory index.

CONCLUSION: Multiple subcortical, cortical structures, and regional neural activities might be influenced by serum IGF-1 levels. Thereinto, ALFF in the paracentral lobe, postcentral gyrus and precentral gyrus fully mediates the effect of IGF-1 on the working memory index.

PMID:36685242 | PMC:PMC9853296 | DOI:10.3389/fnins.2022.1043857

Frontoamygdala hyperconnectivity predicts affective dysregulation in adolescent moderate-severe TBI

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Front Rehabil Sci. 2023 Jan 4;3:1064215. doi: 10.3389/fresc.2022.1064215. eCollection 2022.


In survivors of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI), affective disruptions often remain underdetected and undertreated, in part due to poor understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms. We hypothesized that limbic circuits are integral to affective dysregulation in msTBI. To test this, we studied 19 adolescents with msTBI 17 months post-injury (TBI: M age 15.6, 5 females) as well as 44 matched healthy controls (HC: M age 16.4, 21 females). We leveraged two previously identified, large-scale resting-state (rsfMRI) networks of the amygdala to determine whether connectivity strength correlated with affective problems in the adolescents with msTBI. We found that distinct amygdala networks differentially predicted externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in patients with msTBI. Specifically, patients with the highest medial amygdala connectivity were rated by parents as having greater externalizing behavioral problems measured on the BRIEF and CBCL, but not cognitive problems. The most correlated voxels in that network localize to the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) and posterior cingulate (PCC) cortices, predicting 48% of the variance in externalizing problems. Alternatively, patients with the highest ventrolateral amygdala connectivity were rated by parents as having greater internalizing behavioral problems measured on the CBCL, but not cognitive problems. The most correlated voxels in that network localize to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), predicting 57% of the variance in internalizing problems. Both findings were independent of potential confounds including ratings of TBI severity, time since injury, lesion burden based on acute imaging, demographic variables, and other non-amygdalar rsfMRI metrics (e.g., rACC to PCC connectivity), as well as macro- and microstructural measures of limbic circuitry (e.g., amygdala volume and uncinate fasciculus fractional anisotropy). Supporting the clinical significance of these findings, patients with msTBI had significantly greater externalizing problem ratings than healthy control participants and all the brain-behavior findings were specific to the msTBI group in that no similar correlations were found in the healthy control participants. Taken together, frontoamygdala pathways may underlie chronic dysregulation of behavior and mood in patients with msTBI. Future work will focus on neuromodulation techniques to directly affect frontoamygdala pathways with the aim to mitigate such dysregulation problems.

PMID:36684686 | PMC:PMC9845889 | DOI:10.3389/fresc.2022.1064215

CMR detects decreased myocardial deformation in asymptomatic patients at risk for heart failure

Mon, 01/23/2023 - 11:00

Front Cardiovasc Med. 2023 Jan 5;9:1091768. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2022.1091768. eCollection 2022.


AIMS: The main management strategy of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is prevention since HFpEF is associated with many cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, especially since HFpEF is linked to a high risk for both mortality and recurrent heart failure (HF) hospitalizations. Therefore, there is a need for new tools to identify patients with a high risk profile early. Regional strain assessment by CMR seems to be superior in describing deformation impairment in HF. The MyoHealth score is a promising tool to identify cardiac changes early.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Heart failure patients irrespective of LVEF and asymptomatic controls were recruited, and CMR based measures were obtained. For this analysis the asymptomatic control group (n = 19) was divided into asymptomatic subjects without CV co-morbidities or evidence of cardiac abnormalities and (n = 12) and asymptomatic subjects with CV co-morbidities or evidence of cardiac abnormalities (n = 7) as well as patients with HFpEF (n = 19). We performed CMR scans at rest and during a stress test using isometric handgrip exercise (HG). Assessing the MyoHealth score at rest revealed preserved regional strain in 85 ± 9% of LV segments in controls, 73 ± 11% in at Risk subjects and 73 ± 8% in HFpEF patients. During stress the MyoHealth score was 84 ± 7% in controls, 83 ± 7 in at risk subjects and 74 ± 11 in HFpEF patients.

CONCLUSION: In summary, we show for the first time that asymptomatic subjects with increased CV risk present with HFpEF like impaired myocardial deformation at rest, while they show results like controls under HG stress. The potential of preventive treatment in this group of patients merits further investigation in future.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: [], identifier [DRKS00015615].

PMID:36684590 | PMC:PMC9849678 | DOI:10.3389/fcvm.2022.1091768

Gravity matters for the neural representations of action semantics

Sun, 01/22/2023 - 11:00

Cereb Cortex. 2023 Jan 21:bhad006. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhad006. Online ahead of print.


The dynamic relationship between the neural representation of action word semantics and specific sensorimotor experience remains controversial. Here, we temporarily altered human subjects' sensorimotor experience in a 15-day head-down tilt bed rest setting, a ground-based analog of microgravity that disproportionally affects sensorimotor experiences of the lower limbs, and examined whether such effector-dependent activity deprivation specifically affected the neural processes of comprehending verbs of lower-limb actions (e.g. to kick) relative to upper-limb ones (e.g. to pinch). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the multivoxel neural patterns for such action words prior to and after bed rest. We found an effector-specific (lower vs. upper limb) experience modulation in subcortical sensorimotor-related and anterior temporal regions. The neural action semantic representations in other effector-specific verb semantic regions (e.g. left lateral posterior temporal cortex) and motor execution regions were robust against such experience alterations. These effector-specific, sensorimotor-experience-sensitive and experience-independent patterns of verb neural representation highlight the multidimensional and dynamic nature of semantic neural representation, and the broad influence of microgravity (hence gravity) environment on cognition.

PMID:36682884 | DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhad006

Determination of Affected Brain Regions at Various Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

Sun, 01/22/2023 - 11:00

Neurosci Res. 2023 Jan 19:S0168-0102(23)00010-X. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2023.01.010. Online ahead of print.


The objective of study was to explore those brain areas that were affected at each stage during the progression of Alzheimer's disease and advancements in deep learning that grabbed the research community. Six affected brain areas were explored at mild cognitive impairment, four at first stage and six at each second and third stage of Alzheimer's disease. The common brain regions among these stages were cuneus, precuneus, calcarine cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and frontal superior medial gyrus. The fMRI data at the resting state of 18 AD patients who were converted from MCI to stage 3 of Alzheimer's were taken from ADNI public source database. Among these patients, there were ten males and eight females. Independent component analysis was used to explore affected brain regions and an algorithm based on deep learning convolutional neural network was proposed for binary classification among the stages of Alzheimer's disease. The proposed CNN model delivered 94.6 percent accuracy for separating stage 1 Alzheimer's disease from mild cognitive impairment. 96.7 percent accuracy was acquired to distinguish stage 2 Alzheimer's disease from mild cognitive impairment, and stage 3 Alzheimer's disease was separated from mild cognitive impairment with an accuracy of 97.8 percent.

PMID:36682693 | DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2023.01.010

A multimodal imaging approach to foreign accent syndrome. A case report

Sun, 01/22/2023 - 11:00

Neurocase. 2023 Jan 22:1-10. doi: 10.1080/13554794.2023.2168558. Online ahead of print.


This article describes a case of Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) in an Italian woman who developed a Canadian-like foreign accent without brain damage (functional FAS). The patient underwent an in-depth neuroimaging and (neuro)psychological evaluation. Language networks in the frontotemporal-parietal areas were typically activated bilaterally through fMRI and MEG assessments based on task-based data. Resting-state fMRI showed preserved connectivity between language areas. An obsessive-compulsive personality profile and mild anxiety were found, suggesting psychological and psychiatric factors may be relevant. Accordingly with our findings, multimodal imaging is beneficial to understand FAS neurological and functional etiologies.

PMID:36682057 | DOI:10.1080/13554794.2023.2168558

Neural correlates of neuroticism: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of resting-state functional brain imaging studies

Sat, 01/21/2023 - 11:00

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2023 Jan 18:105055. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2023.105055. Online ahead of print.


Neuroticism is one of the most robust higher-order personality traits associated with negative emotionality and risk of mental disorders. Many studies have investigated relationships between neuroticism and the brain, but the results have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of whole-brain resting-state functional neuroimaging studies to identify the most stable neurofunctional substrates of neuroticism. We found stable significant positive correlations between neuroticism and resting-state brain activity in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), left striatum, and right hippocampus. In contrast, resting-state brain activity in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right supramarginal gyrus (SMG) were negatively associated with neuroticism. Additionally, meta-regression analysis revealed brain regions in which sex and age moderated the link of spontaneous activity with neuroticism. This is the first study to provide a comprehensive understanding of resting-state brain activity correlates of neuroticism, and the findings may be useful for the targeting of specific brain regions for interventions to decrease the risks of mental health problems.

PMID:36681370 | DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2023.105055

Brain network integration, segregation and quasi-periodic activation and deactivation during tasks and rest

Sat, 01/21/2023 - 11:00

Neuroimage. 2023 Jan 18:119890. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2023.119890. Online ahead of print.


Previous studies have shown that a re-organization of the brain's functional connectome expressed in terms of network integration and segregation may play a pivotal role for brain function. However, it has been proven difficult to fully capture both processes independently in a single methodological framework. In this study, by starting from pair-wise assessments of instantaneous phase synchronization and community membership, we assemble spatiotemporally flexible networks that reflect changes in integration/segregation that occur at a spectrum of spatial as well as temporal scales. This is achieved by iteratively assembling smaller networks into larger units under the constraint that the smaller units should be internally integrated, i.e. belong to the same community. The assembled subnetworks can be partly overlapping and differ in size across time. Our results show that subnetwork integration and segregation occur simultaneously in the brain. During task performance, global changes in synchronization between networks arise that are tied to the underlying temporal design of the experiment. We show that a hallmark property of the dynamics of the brain's functional connectome is a presence of quasi-periodic patterns of network activation and deactivation, which during task performance becomes intertwined with the underlying temporal structure of the experimental paradigm. Additionally, we show that the degree of network integration throughout a n-back working memory task is correlated to performance.

PMID:36681135 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2023.119890

Brain connectivity in frailty: Insights from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)

Sat, 01/21/2023 - 11:00

Neurobiol Aging. 2023 Jan 7;124:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2023.01.001. Online ahead of print.


Frailty in older adults is associated with greater risk of cognitive decline. Brain connectivity insights could help understand the association, but studies are lacking. We applied connectome-based predictive modeling to a 32-item self-reported Frailty Index (FI) using resting state functional MRI data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. A total of 347 participants were included (48.9% male, mean age 68.2 years). From connectome-based predictive modeling, we obtained 204 edges that positively correlated with the FI and composed the "frailty network" characterised by connectivity of the visual network (right); and 188 edges that negatively correlated with the FI and formed the "robustness network" characterized by connectivity in the basal ganglia. Both networks' highest degree node was the caudate but with different patterns: from caudate to visual network in the frailty network; and to default mode network in the robustness network. The FI was correlated with walking speed but not with metrics of global cognition, reinforcing the matching between the FI and the brain connectivity pattern found (main predicted connectivity in basal ganglia).

PMID:36680853 | DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2023.01.001

Altered Functional Connectivity Density in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment

Sat, 01/21/2023 - 11:00

Brain Sci. 2023 Jan 13;13(1):144. doi: 10.3390/brainsci13010144.


Although disturbed functional connectivity is known to be a factor influencing cognitive impairment, the neuropathological mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment caused by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remain unclear. To characterize the neural mechanisms underlying T2DM-related brain damage, we explored the altered functional architecture patterns in different cognitive states in T2DM patients. Thirty-seven T2DM patients with normal cognitive function (DMCN), 40 T2DM patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (DMCI), and 40 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological assessments and resting-state functional MRI examinations. Functional connectivity density (FCD) analysis was performed, and the relationship between abnormal FCD and clinical/cognitive variables was assessed. The regions showing abnormal FCD in T2DM patients were mainly located in the temporal lobe and cerebellum, but the abnormal functional architecture was more extensive in DMCI patients. Moreover, in comparison with the DMCN group, DMCI patients showed reduced long-range FCD in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which was correlated with the Rey auditory verbal learning test score in all T2DM patients. Thus, DMCI patients show functional architecture abnormalities in more brain regions involved in higher-level cognitive function (executive function and auditory memory function), and the left STG may be involved in the neuropathology of auditory memory in T2DM patients. These findings provide some new insights into understanding the neural mechanisms underlying T2DM-related cognitive impairment.

PMID:36672125 | DOI:10.3390/brainsci13010144

Eyes-Open and Eyes-Closed Resting State Network Connectivity Differences

Sat, 01/21/2023 - 11:00

Brain Sci. 2023 Jan 10;13(1):122. doi: 10.3390/brainsci13010122.


Resting state networks comprise several brain regions that exhibit complex patterns of interaction. Switching from eyes closed (EC) to eyes open (EO) during the resting state modifies these patterns of connectivity, but precisely how these change remains unclear. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan healthy participants in two resting conditions (viz., EC and EO). Seven resting state networks were chosen for this study: salience network (SN), default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), dorsal attention network (DAN), visual network (VN), motor network (MN) and auditory network (AN). We performed functional connectivity (FC) analysis for each network, comparing the FC maps for both EC and EO. Our results show increased connectivity between most networks during EC relative to EO, thereby suggesting enhanced integration during EC and greater modularity or specialization during EO. Among these networks, SN is distinctive: during the transition from EO to EC it evinces increased connectivity with DMN and decreased connectivity with VN. This change might imply that SN functions in a manner analogous to a circuit switch, modulating resting state relations with DMN and VN, when transitioning between EO and EC.

PMID:36672103 | DOI:10.3390/brainsci13010122

Neurocognitive Endophenotypes for Eating Disorders: A Preliminary High-Risk Family Study

Sat, 01/21/2023 - 11:00

Brain Sci. 2023 Jan 4;13(1):99. doi: 10.3390/brainsci13010099.


Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders with a neurobiological basis. ED-specific neuropsychological and brain characteristics have been identified, but often in individuals in the acute phase or recovered from EDs, precluding an understanding of whether they are correlates and scars of EDs vs. predisposing factors. Although familial high-risk (FHR) studies are available across other disorders, this study design has not been used in EDs. We carried out the first FMH study in EDs, investigating healthy offspring of women with EDs and controls. We preliminarily aimed to investigate ED-related neurocognitive and brain markers that could point to predisposing factors for ED. Sixteen girls at FHR for EDs and twenty control girls (age range: 8-15), completed neuropsychological tests assessing executive functions. Girls also underwent a resting-state fMRI scan to quantify functional connectivity (FC) within resting-state networks. Girls at FHR for EDs performed worse on a cognitive flexibility task compared with controls (F = 5.53, p = 0.02). Moreover, they showed different FC compared with controls in several resting-state networks (p < 0.05 FDR-corrected). Differences identified in cognitive flexibility and in FC are in line with those identified in individuals with EDs, strongly pointing to a role as potential endophenotypes of EDs.

PMID:36672080 | DOI:10.3390/brainsci13010099