New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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Apathy and Executive Function in Healthy Elderly-Resting State fMRI Study.

Fri, 05/26/2017 - 12:10
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Apathy and Executive Function in Healthy Elderly-Resting State fMRI Study.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:124

Authors: Kawagoe T, Onoda K, Yamaguchi S

Abstract
Apathy is a quantitative reduction in goal-directed behaviors, having three subtypes. Despite executive deterioration in healthy aging, researchers have not investigated the "cognitive-deficit" subtype of apathy in healthy populations, which would result from executive dysfunction. We hypothesized that a relationship between apathy and executive function (EF) would be found in healthy older adults, accompanied with neural deterioration with functional dysconnectivity between the striatum and frontal region as suggested by previous studies. A total of 100 healthy adults in a health examination system database were analyzed. The present study indicates that apathy is substantially associated with executive deterioration, which can be partially ascribed to decreased functional connectivity between the frontal and ventral striatum. Despite some limitations, our findings may contribute to research on healthy psychological aging.

PMID: 28536519 [PubMed - in process]

New Insights into the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Fibromyalgia.

Fri, 05/26/2017 - 12:10
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New Insights into the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Fibromyalgia.

Biomedicines. 2017 May 13;5(2):

Authors: Schmidt-Wilcke T, Diers M

Abstract
Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and several additional symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, depressive episodes, and anxiety. The underlying pathophysiology of fibromyalgia is still poorly understood, and treatment is often unsatisfactory. Current research provides evidence for altered pain processing in chronic pain patients, and specifically in fibromyalgia patients, possibly based on altered functional connectivity and brain chemistry in brain regions within the pain processing system. Besides discussing evidence from studies applying brain imaging (specifically resting state fMRI (Functional magnetic resonance imaging)), the current review aims at providing an overview of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. We will also summarize the most important results from recently performed brain imaging studies providing new insights into the potential mechanisms of various therapeutic approaches.

PMID: 28536365 [PubMed - in process]

Altered thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity in smokers.

Fri, 05/26/2017 - 12:10
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Altered thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity in smokers.

Neurosci Lett. 2017 May 20;:

Authors: Wang C, Bai J, Wang C, von Deneen KM, Yuan K, Cheng J

Abstract
The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level. The bilateral thalamic RSFC patterns were compared between smokers and non-smokers. The relationship between neuroimaging findings and smoking behaviors (FTND and pack-years) were also investigated in smokers. Relative to nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced RSFC strength between the left thalamus and several brain regions, i.e. the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral caudate. In addition, the right thalamus showed reduced RSFC with the right dlPFC as well as the bilateral insula in smokers. Therefore, the findings in the current study revealed the reduced RSFC of the thalamus with the dlPFC, the ACC, the insula and the caudate in smokers, which provided new insights into the roles of the thalamus in nicotine addiction from a function integration perspective.

PMID: 28536051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Application of long term video electroencephalogram and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in detection of cognition in patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes].

Fri, 05/26/2017 - 12:10
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[Application of long term video electroencephalogram and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in detection of cognition in patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017 May 23;97(19):1474-1478

Authors: Yan XX, Yu Q, Gao YT, Li LT, Yu DH, Chen Y, Yao XJ, Yang WD, Chen ZJ, Yin JZ, An Y, Tan K

Abstract
Objective: To study the relationship between the changes of brain network and cognition in patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) by using long term video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technology. Methods: Eleven patients with right-handed were recruited (from April 2015 to September 2016) from epilepsy specialist outpatients and functional department of neurosurgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. They all underwent the long term VEEG monitoring (one sleep cycle was included at least). According to the spike-wave index (SWI) during slow ware sleep, they were divided into two groups: SWI<50% (5 cases) and SWI≥50% (6 cases). All the patients were assessed with cognitional test including language, execution, memory and attention. They also underwent the head MRI, RS-fMRI examinations. Then the results were comparatively analysed. Results: (1)There were no statisticaly significance in sex, age, age of onset, disease course, total number of seizures, years of education (P>0.05). The Full Intelligence Quotient (FIQ) (87±18), Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ) (88±15) and Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) (89±20) of SWI≥50% group were lower than SWI<50% group(118±8, 114±11, 119±5) and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). (2)There was a negative correlation between the FIQ (P=0.002), VIQ (P=0.006), PIQ (P=0.001) and SWI. The FIQ, VIQ and PIQ had no correlation with the sex, age, age of onset, disease course, total number of seizures, years of education (P>0.05). (3)Compared with SWI<50% group, SWI≥50% group showed increased regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the bilateral precentral gyrus, premotor area and the subcortical structure, the right temporal lobe and the bilateral insular lobe(P<0.05); while they showed decreased ReHo in the posterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior inferior temporal lobe and right occipital lobe(P<0.05). Conclusion: The change of the brain network which is caused by the paradoxical and constant discharge during slow ware sleep in patients with BECTS may affect the development of cognition.

PMID: 28535638 [PubMed - in process]

Neural oscillations in antipsychotic-naïve patients with a first psychotic episode.

Fri, 05/26/2017 - 12:10
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Neural oscillations in antipsychotic-naïve patients with a first psychotic episode.

World J Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;17(4):296-307

Authors: Ramyead A, Studerus E, Kometer M, Heitz U, Gschwandtner U, Fuhr P, Riecher-Rössler A

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: In chronic schizophrenic psychoses, oscillatory abnormalities predominantly occur in prefrontal cortical regions and are associated with reduced communication across cortical areas. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether similar alterations can be observed in patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP), a state characterised by pathological features occurring in both late prodromal patients and initial phases of frank schizophrenic psychoses.
METHODS: We assessed resting-state electroencephalographic data of 31 antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients and 29 healthy controls (HC). We investigated the three-dimensional (3D) current source density (CSD) distribution and lagged phase synchronisation (LPS) of oscillations across small-scale and large-scale brain networks. We additionally investigated LPS relationships with clinical symptoms using linear mixed-effects models.
RESULTS: Compared to HC, FEP patients demonstrated abnormal CSD distributions in frontal areas of the brain; while decreased oscillations were found in the low frequencies, an increase was reported in the high frequencies (P < 0.01). Patients also exhibited deviant LPS in the high frequencies, whose dynamics changed over increasing 3D cortico-cortical distances and increasing psychotic symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that in addition to prefrontal cortical abnormalities, altered synchronised neural oscillations are also present, suggesting possible disruptions in cortico-cortical communications. These findings provide new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of emerging schizophrenic psychoses.

PMID: 26899507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dynamic brain glucose metabolism identifies anti-correlated cortical-cerebellar networks at rest.

Wed, 05/24/2017 - 11:00

Dynamic brain glucose metabolism identifies anti-correlated cortical-cerebellar networks at rest.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017 Jan 01;:271678X17708692

Authors: Tomasi DG, Shokri-Kojori E, Wiers CE, Kim SW, Demiral ŞB, Cabrera EA, Lindgren E, Miller G, Wang GJ, Volkow ND

Abstract
It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions. Whereas cerebellum, thalamus, globus pallidus and calcarine cortex arose as the strongest t-MC hubs, the precuneus and visual cortex arose as the strongest rfMRI hubs. The strength of the t-MC linearly increased with the metabolic rate of glucose suggesting that t-MC measures are strongly associated with the energy demand of the brain tissue, and could reflect regional differences in glucose metabolism, counterbalanced metabolic network demand, and/or differential time-varying delivery of FDG. The mismatch between metabolic and functional connectivity patterns computed as a function of time could reflect differences in the temporal characteristics of glucose metabolism as measured with PET-FDG and brain activation as measured with rfMRI.

PMID: 28534658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Improving the Test-Retest Reliability of Resting State fMRI by Removing the Impact of Sleep.

Wed, 05/24/2017 - 11:00
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Improving the Test-Retest Reliability of Resting State fMRI by Removing the Impact of Sleep.

Front Neurosci. 2017;11:249

Authors: Wang J, Han J, Nguyen VT, Guo L, Guo CC

Abstract
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) provides a powerful tool to examine large-scale neural networks in the human brain and their disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thanks to its low demand and high tolerance, resting state paradigms can be easily acquired from clinical population. However, due to the unconstrained nature, resting state paradigm is associated with excessive head movement and proneness to sleep. Consequently, the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures is moderate at best, falling short of widespread use in the clinic. Here, we characterized the effect of sleep on the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI. Using measures of heart rate variability (HRV) derived from simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recording, we identified portions of fMRI data when subjects were more alert or sleepy, and examined their effects on the test-retest reliability of functional connectivity measures. When volumes of sleep were excluded, the reliability of rs-fMRI is significantly improved, and the improvement appears to be general across brain networks. The amount of improvement is robust with the removal of as much as 60% volumes of sleepiness. Therefore, test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI is affected by sleep and could be improved by excluding volumes of sleepiness as indexed by HRV. Our results suggest a novel and practical method to improve test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures.

PMID: 28533739 [PubMed - in process]

Local-to-remote cortical connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

Tue, 05/23/2017 - 10:20
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Local-to-remote cortical connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

Neurobiol Aging. 2017 Apr 26;:

Authors: Zhang YW, Zhao ZL, Qi Z, Hu Y, Wang YS, Sheng C, Sun Y, Wang X, Jiang LL, Yan CG, Li K, Li HJ, Zuo XN

Abstract
Alterations in both local and remote connectivity were reported in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients but rarely in the same group of patients. In the present study, we employed a novel resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) connectome index, regional functional homogeneity on the 2-dimensional cortical surface, to detect full-cortex vertex-wise changes of the local rfMRI connectivity in 32 aMCI patients compared with 40 healthy controls. We further used the seed-based functional connectivity to explore the remote rfMRI connectivity in aMCI. The results revealed significantly lower local connectivity in the default network and higher local connectivity in the somatomotor network in aMCI patients. Abnormal remote connectivity relevant to local connectivity was primarily detectable within the default network (decrease) and in the somatomotor and attention networks (increase). The abnormalities in the remote (not local) default network connectivity were significantly associated with episodic memory performance in patients. These distance-related connectivity profiles illustrated a dysfunctional pattern in aMCI, which extended our knowledge of this pathological aging process.

PMID: 28528774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Changes in resting state functional brain connectivity and withdrawal symptoms are associated with acute electronic cigarette use.

Mon, 05/22/2017 - 22:10
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Changes in resting state functional brain connectivity and withdrawal symptoms are associated with acute electronic cigarette use.

Brain Res Bull. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Hobkirk AL, Nichols TT, Foulds J, Yingst JM, Veldheer S, Hrabovsky S, Richie J, Eissenberg T, Wilson SJ

Abstract
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness. The current study used fMRI to determine the effects of ecig use on rsFC and withdrawal symptoms. Independent component, dual regression, and permutation analyses were conducted on rsFC collected from ecig users before and after an ecig use episode (n=9) that occurred after 14h of nicotine abstinence. Similar to the known effects of nicotine administration, ecig use decreased rsFC of two clusters in the right frontal pole and frontal medial cortex with an attentional control salience network, and decreased rsFC of five clusters in the left thalamus, insula, and brain stem with a reward network encompassing the striatum. Ecig use increased inverse coupling between the prefrontal reward network and the right frontoparietal executive control network. Reductions in craving and difficulty with concentration were correlated with decreases in coupling strength between reward and executive control networks. These preliminary results suggest that the effects of ecig use on rsFC are similar to those seen with nicotine administration in other forms. In order to gain insight into the addictive potential of ecigs, further research is needed to understand the neural influence of ecigs across the range of nicotine delivery within this class of products.

PMID: 28528203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional Thalamocortical Connectivity Development and Alterations in Preterm Infants during the Neonatal Period.

Sun, 05/21/2017 - 15:40
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Functional Thalamocortical Connectivity Development and Alterations in Preterm Infants during the Neonatal Period.

Neuroscience. 2017 May 16;:

Authors: Cai Y, Wu X, Su Z, Shi Y, Gao JH

Abstract
The thalamus is one of the most commonly affected brain regions in preterm infants, particularly in infants with white matter lesions (WML). The aim of this paper is to explore the development and alterations of the functional thalamocortical connectivity in preterm infants with and without punctate white matter lesions (PWMLs) during the period before term equivalent age (TEA). In this study, twenty-two normal preterm infants (NP), twenty-two preterm infants with PWMLs and thirty-one full-term control infants (FT) were enrolled. Thalamus parcellation was performed based on partial correlation between the thalamus and seven well-recognized infant networks obtained from independent component analysis (ICA), and thalamocortical connectivity was further reconstructed between the defined thalamus clusters and the whole brain. Thalamo-salience and thalamo-sensorimotor connectivity were predominantly identified, while other types of thalamocortical connectivity remained largely limited during the neonatal period. Both preterm groups exhibited prominent development in thalamo-salience and thalamo-sensorimotor connectivity during this period. Compared with NP infants, PWML infants demonstrated increased connectivity in the parietal area in thalamo-salience connectivity but no significant differences in thalamo-sensorimotor connectivity. Our results reveal that compared with NP infants, PWML infants exhibit slightly altered thalamo-salience connectivity, and this alteration is deduced to be functional compensations for inefficient thalamocortical processing due to PWMLs.

PMID: 28526574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Male-to-female gender dysphoria: Gender-specific differences in resting-state networks.

Sat, 05/20/2017 - 15:10
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Male-to-female gender dysphoria: Gender-specific differences in resting-state networks.

Brain Behav. 2017 May;7(5):e00691

Authors: Clemens B, Junger J, Pauly K, Neulen J, Neuschaefer-Rube C, Frölich D, Mingoia G, Derntl B, Habel U

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD).
METHODS: To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women.
RESULTS: Differences between male and female control groups were found only in the auditory RSN, whereas differences between both control groups and MtFs were found in the auditory and fronto-parietal RSNs, including both primary sensory areas (e.g. calcarine gyrus) and higher order cognitive areas such as the middle and posterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Overall, differences in MtFs compared with men and women were more pronounced before cross-sex hormonal treatment. Interestingly, rs-FC between MtFs and women did not differ significantly after treatment. When comparing hormonally untreated and treated MtFs, we found differences in connectivity of the calcarine gyrus and thalamus in the context of the auditory network, as well as the inferior frontal gyrus in context of the fronto-parietal network.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide first evidence that MtFs exhibit patterns of rs-FC which are different from both their assigned and their aspired gender, indicating an intermediate position between the two sexes. We suggest that the present study constitutes a starting point for future research designed to clarify whether the brains of individuals with GD are more similar to their assigned or their aspired gender.

PMID: 28523232 [PubMed - in process]

Strategy-based reasoning training modulates cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury.

Sat, 05/20/2017 - 15:10
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Strategy-based reasoning training modulates cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury.

Brain Behav. 2017 May;7(5):e00687

Authors: Han K, Davis RA, Chapman SB, Krawczyk DC

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Prior studies have demonstrated training-induced changes in the healthy adult brain. Yet, it remains unclear how the injured brain responds to cognitive training months-to-years after injury.
METHODS: Sixty individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) were randomized into either strategy-based (N = 31) or knowledge-based (N = 29) training for 8 weeks. We measured cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) before training, immediately posttraining, and 3 months posttraining.
RESULTS: Relative to the knowledge-based training group, the cortical thickness of the strategy-based training group showed diverse temporal patterns of changes over multiple brain regions (pvertex < .05, pcluster < .05): (1) increases followed by decreases, (2) monotonic increases, and (3) monotonic decreases. However, network-based statistics (NBS) analysis of rsFC among these regions revealed that the strategy-based training group induced only monotonic increases in connectivity, relative to the knowledge-based training group (|Z| > 1.96, pNBS < 0.05). Complementing the rsFC results, the strategy-based training group yielded monotonic improvement in scores for the trail-making test (p < .05). Analyses of brain-behavior relationships revealed that improvement in trail-making scores were associated with training-induced changes in cortical thickness (pvertex < .05, pcluster < .05) and rsFC (pvertex < .05, pcluster < .005) within the strategy-based training group.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that training-induced brain plasticity continues through chronic phases of TBI and that brain connectivity and cortical thickness may serve as markers of plasticity.

PMID: 28523229 [PubMed - in process]

Altered Functional Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

Sat, 05/20/2017 - 15:10
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Altered Functional Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:127

Authors: Li H, Jia X, Qi Z, Fan X, Ma T, Ni H, Li CR, Li K

Abstract
Background: Cholinergic dysfunction plays an important role in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM) provides the main source of cortical cholinergic innervation. Previous studies have characterized structural changes of the cholinergic basal forebrain in individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how functional connectivity of the BNM (BNM-FC) is altered in MCI remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify alterations in BNM-FC in individuals with MCI as compared to healthy controls (HCs), and to examine the relationship between these alterations with neuropsychological measures in individuals with MCI. Method: One-hundred-and-one MCI patients and 103 HCs underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Imaging data were processed with SPM8 and CONN software. BNM-FC was examined via correlation in low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations between the BNM and all other brain voxels. Group differences were examined with a covariance analysis with age, gender, education level, mean framewise displacement (FD) and global correlation (GCOR) as nuisance covariates. Pearson's correlation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the BNM-FC and clinical assessments. Result: Compared with HCs, individuals with MCI showed significantly decreased BNM-FC in the left insula extending into claustrum (insula/claustrum). Furthermore, greater decrease in BNM-FC with insula/claustrum was associated with more severe impairment in immediate recall during Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) in MCI patients. Conclusion: MCI is associated with changes in BNM-FC to the insula/claustrum in relation to cognitive impairments. These new findings may advance research of the cholinergic bases of cognitive dysfunction during healthy aging and in individuals at risk of developing AD.

PMID: 28522971 [PubMed - in process]

Characteristic lesion pattern and echocardiographic findings in extra-cardiac shunt-related stroke.

Sat, 05/20/2017 - 15:10
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Characteristic lesion pattern and echocardiographic findings in extra-cardiac shunt-related stroke.

J Neurol Sci. 2016 Oct 15;369:176-80

Authors: Mun JK, Park SJ, Kim SJ, Bang OY, Chung CS, Lee KH, Kim GM

Abstract
Among embolic strokes of undetermined source, under-recognized etiology such as extra-cardiac shunt could be a potential risk factor. We sought to characterize infarction patterns on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) findings in extra-cardiac shunt-related stroke. We enrolled 96 consecutive patients with cryptogenic stroke who had an extra- or intra-cardiac shunt. Diagnosis of the shunt was performed using TEE with agitated saline contrast and pulmonary vein isolation. Infarction patterns on DWI and total lesion volume were analyzed. Bubble amounts through the shunt were classified via the International Consensus Criteria (ICC). Short-term prognosis, patterns and size of DWI lesions, and involved vascular territories were not significantly different between two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that extra-cardiac shunt group has a smaller total infarct volume (odds ratio [OR]=0.427, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.228-0.799, p=0.008), and significantly higher bubble grade during resting state and lower grade during the Valsalva maneuver (OR= 0.539, 95% CI 0.438-0.663, p<0.001). Stroke related to an extra-cardiac shunt presented smaller infarct volume, favorable clinical outcomes and characteristic finding on TEE with agitated saline contrast. Further study is needed to confirm whether the extra-cardiac shunt is an independent risk factor.

PMID: 27653885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Functional connectivity in incarcerated male adolescents with psychopathic traits.

Fri, 05/19/2017 - 14:50

Functional connectivity in incarcerated male adolescents with psychopathic traits.

Psychiatry Res. 2017 May 11;265:35-44

Authors: Thijssen S, Kiehl KA

Abstract
The present study examined the association between psychopathic traits and functional connectivity in 177 incarcerated male adolescents. We hypothesized that psychopathic symptoms would be associated with functional connectivity within networks encompassing limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the default mode (DMN), salience networks (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from research at a youth detention facility in Wisconsin. All participants were scanned at maximum-security facilities. Psychopathic traits were assessed using Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Resting-state networks were computed using group Independent Component Analysis. Associations between psychopathic traits and resting-state connectivity were assessed using Mancova analyses. PCL-YV Total score and Factor 1 score (interpersonal and affective traits) were associated with the power spectra of the DMN. Factor 1 score was associated with SN and ECN spatial maps. Factor 2 score (lifestyle and antisocial traits) was associated with spatial map of the ECN. Only the Factor 1 association with DMN power spectrum survived correction for multiple testing. Comparable to adult psychopathy, adolescent psychopathic traits were associated with networks implicated in self-referential thought, moral behavior, cognition, and saliency detection: functions previously reported to be disrupted in adult psychopaths.

PMID: 28521281 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered Coupling Between Resting-State Cerebral Blood Flow and Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia.

Fri, 05/19/2017 - 14:50

Altered Coupling Between Resting-State Cerebral Blood Flow and Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Zhu J, Zhuo C, Xu L, Liu F, Qin W, Yu C

Abstract
Background: Respective changes in resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity in schizophrenia have been reported. However, their coupling alterations in schizophrenia remain largely unknown.
Methods: 89 schizophrenia patients and 90 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI to calculate functional connectivity strength (FCS) and arterial spin labeling imaging to compute CBF. The CBF-FCS coupling of the whole gray matter and the CBF/FCS ratio (the amount of blood supply per unit of connectivity strength) of each voxel were compared between the 2 groups.
Results: Whole gray matter CBF-FCS coupling was decreased in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. In schizophrenia patients, the decreased CBF/FCS ratio was predominantly located in cognitive- and emotional-related brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, hippocampus and thalamus, whereas an increased CBF/FCS ratio was mainly identified in the sensorimotor regions, including the putamen, and sensorimotor, mid-cingulate and visual cortices.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that the neurovascular decoupling in the brain may be a possible neuropathological mechanism of schizophrenia.

PMID: 28521048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Computing the Social Brain Connectome Across Systems and States.

Fri, 05/19/2017 - 14:50

Computing the Social Brain Connectome Across Systems and States.

Cereb Cortex. 2017 May 18;:1-26

Authors: Alcalá-López D, Smallwood J, Jefferies E, Van Overwalle F, Vogeley K, Mars RB, Turetsky BI, Laird AR, Fox PT, Eickhoff SB, Bzdok D

Abstract
Social skills probably emerge from the interaction between different neural processing levels. However, social neuroscience is fragmented into highly specialized, rarely cross-referenced topics. The present study attempts a systematic reconciliation by deriving a social brain definition from neural activity meta-analyses on social-cognitive capacities. The social brain was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling evaluating coactivation in task-focused brain states and physiological fluctuations evaluating correlations in task-free brain states. Network clustering proposed a functional segregation into (1) lower sensory, (2) limbic, (3) intermediate, and (4) high associative neural circuits that together mediate various social phenomena. Functional profiling suggested that no brain region or network is exclusively devoted to social processes. Finally, nodes of the putative mirror-neuron system were coherently cross-connected during tasks and more tightly coupled to embodied simulation systems rather than abstract emulation systems. These first steps may help reintegrate the specialized research agendas in the social and affective sciences.

PMID: 28521007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Changes of functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

Fri, 05/19/2017 - 14:50
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Changes of functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Liu P, Liu Y, Wang G, Li R, Wei Y, Fan Y, Yu Y, Deng D, Qin W

Abstract
Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), a common gynecological disorder, is associated with structural and functional alterations in several subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, systematic functional connectivity of the ACC subregions in PDM has not been clarified. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from forty-eight PDM patients and thirty-eight matched female healthy controls to investigate the functional connectivity of ACC subregions in PDM. Compared to healthy controls, PDM patients exhibited increased connectivity between the caudal ACC (cACC) and primary somatosensory cortex (SI), between the perigenual ACC (pACC) and caudate, and between the subgenual ACC (sACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). PDM patients also showed decreased connectivity between the pACC and precuneus. In PDM group, the connectivity of the right pACC-right caudate positively correlated with disease duration, and the connectivity of the left pACC-left precuneus negatively correlated with disease severity. These present findings reveal that abnormal ACC connectivity may be implicated in the PDM-related disturbances in pain sensory, modulation, and affection. We hope that our study could enhance the understanding of the pathophysiology underlying PDM.

PMID: 28516336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Presurgical thalamic "hubness" predicts surgical outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Fri, 05/19/2017 - 14:50
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Presurgical thalamic "hubness" predicts surgical outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Neurology. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: He X, Doucet GE, Pustina D, Sperling MR, Sharan AD, Tracy JI

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the presurgical brain functional architecture presented in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using graph theoretical measures of resting-state fMRI data and to test its association with surgical outcome.
METHODS: Fifty-six unilateral patients with TLE, who subsequently underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were classified as obtaining a seizure-free (Engel class I, n = 35) vs not seizure-free (Engel classes II-IV, n = 21) outcome at 1 year after surgery, and 28 matched healthy controls were enrolled. On the basis of their presurgical resting-state functional connectivity, network properties, including nodal hubness (importance of a node to the network; degree, betweenness, and eigenvector centralities) and integration (global efficiency), were estimated and compared across our experimental groups. Cross-validations with support vector machine (SVM) were used to examine whether selective nodal hubness exceeded standard clinical characteristics in outcome prediction.
RESULTS: Compared to the seizure-free patients and healthy controls, the not seizure-free patients displayed a specific increase in nodal hubness (degree and eigenvector centralities) involving both the ipsilateral and contralateral thalami, contributed by an increase in the number of connections to regions distributed mostly in the contralateral hemisphere. Simulating removal of thalamus reduced network integration more dramatically in not seizure-free patients. Lastly, SVM models built on these thalamic hubness measures produced 76% prediction accuracy, while models built with standard clinical variables yielded only 58% accuracy (both were cross-validated).
CONCLUSIONS: A thalamic network associated with seizure recurrence may already be established presurgically. Thalamic hubness can serve as a potential biomarker of surgical outcome, outperforming the clinical characteristics commonly used in epilepsy surgery centers.

PMID: 28515267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Adolescent lumbar disc herniation: Impact, diagnosis, and treatment.

Fri, 05/19/2017 - 14:50
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Adolescent lumbar disc herniation: Impact, diagnosis, and treatment.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2017;30(2):347-352

Authors: Karademir M, Eser O, Karavelioglu E

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LDH) is rare in children and adolescents. To date, the treatments available for child and adolescent LDH, and the effect of each treatment, have not been fully reviewed.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the etiology, familial history, presenting symptoms, level of herniation, duration of symptoms, radiological findings, as well as treatment methods and outcome.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients with inclusion criteria of being younger than 20 years. (10-19 years); we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm lumbar disc herniations between 2013 and 2016. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 months and discharged if they remained almost asymptomatic for 6 months. All patients were treated conservatively and 6 patients they have progressive neurological deficit and persistent back pain, were treated with surgical procedures. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), as well as the Oswestry Disability Scale (ODS) and the modified Ashworth Scale (AS) were used to analyze physical examination findings both before and after treatment. To detect lumbar disc degeneration, we used the modified Pfirrmann grading system with MRI. All statistical analyses were performed with commercially available SPSS 15.0 software, while p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: A total of 70 cases with lumbar disc herniation have been treated. The mean age was 17.14 ± 2.15 years (range 9-19 years). The male to female ratio was 35:35. The mean duration of symptoms was 7.21 ± 1.69 months. The follow-up duration was 17.31 ± 4.17 months. The most common level was L4-5 in 38 (54%) patients and the second was L5-S1 in 24 (34%) patients. Subligamentous protruded discs were found in 42 (60%), extruded in 6 (9%), and disc bulge with intact annulus in 22 (31%) cases. VAS before treatment was 6.05 ± 0.83, while at 6 months after treatment it was 3.1 ± 0.6. However, at the first-year examination, VAS was 2.17 ± 0.76. The ODS was indexed before treatment 42.03 ± 3.75, at 6 months being 25.01 ± 2.75 and at the first year 9.92 ± 2.67. VAS and the OSD were both significantly decreased after treatment (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Either conservative or surgical methods can be performed comfortably for adolescent lumbar disc herniations. We proposed surgical treatment for patients with incapacitating persistent low back pain or radicular pain that lasted more than 6 weeks, despite rest and medication. We also pursued the development of neurological deficits, including recurrent pain that disturbed routine life activities.

PMID: 27858699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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