Mapping Visual Dominance in Human Sleep.
Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 20;:
Authors: McAvoy M, Mitra A, Tagliazucchi E, Laufs H, Raichle ME
Sleep is a universal behavior, essential for humans and animals alike to survive. Its importance to a person's physical and mental health cannot be overstated. Although lateralization of function is well established in the lesion, split-brain and task based neuroimaging literature, and more recently in functional imaging studies of spontaneous fluctuations of the fMRI BOLD signal during wakeful rest, it is unknown if these asymmetries are present during sleep. We investigated hemispheric asymmetries in the global brain signal during non-REM sleep. Here we show that increasing sleep depth is accompanied by an increasing rightward asymmetry of regions in visual cortex including primary bilaterally and in the right hemisphere along the lingual gyrus and middle temporal cortex. In addition, left hemisphere language regions largely maintained their leftward asymmetry during sleep. Right hemisphere attention related regions expressed a more complicated relation with some regions maintaining a rightward asymmetry while this was lost in others. These results suggest that asymmetries in the human brain are state dependent.
PMID: 28232191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Short-term cerebral activity alterations after surgery in patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis: A longitudinal resting-state fMRI study.
Seizure. 2017 Jan 03;46:43-49
Authors: Tang Y, Xia W, Yu X, Zhou B, Luo C, Huang X, Chen Q, Gong Q, Zhou D
PURPOSE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), as a brain network disorder, has given increased importance to resective surgery. We aimed to examine the short-term postoperative functional network reorganization in patients with unilateral MTLE-HS using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) data with a longitudinal design.
METHOD: Seventeen (10 right-side and 7 left-side) patients with unilateral MTLE-HS were recruited. Rs-fMRI data were recorded from each subject before surgery and at an average of 4.5 months after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) values as well as regions of interesting (ROI)-wise functional connectivity (FC) were compared to characterize the dynamic alterations of cerebral activity.
RESULTS: After surgery, patients with unilateral MTLE-HS presented bilateral diffuse ALFF value changes, which were more widespread in the left-side resection group. Regarding the postoperative Rs-FC alterations, the left MTLE-HS patients presented an interhemispheric FC alteration in a relatively symmetric manner between the bilateral frontal lobe and putamen; the right MTLE-HS patients exhibited an intrahemispheric FC reduction in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit.
CONCLUSION: Patients with unilateral MTLE-HS presented bilateral diffuse regional and interregional neural activity alteration after surgery, even over a short period, which exhibited a divergent pattern between the different sides of resection. This finding may contribute to the understanding of the effect and the mechanisms of surgery on the whole brain network in patients with unilateral MTLE-HS.
PMID: 28226275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Abnormal Effective Connectivity in the Brain is Involved in Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia.
Neurosci Bull. 2017 Feb 21;:
Authors: Li B, Cui LB, Xi YB, Friston KJ, Guo F, Wang HN, Zhang LC, Bai YH, Tan QR, Yin H, Lu H
Information flow among auditory and language processing-related regions implicated in the pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia (SZ) remains unclear. In this study, we used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to quantify connections among the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inner speech monitoring), auditory cortex (auditory processing), hippocampus (memory retrieval), thalamus (information filtering), and Broca's area (language production) in 17 first-episode drug-naïve SZ patients with AVHs, 15 without AVHs, and 19 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, we performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and correlation analysis between image measures and symptoms. sDCM revealed an increased sensitivity of auditory cortex to its thalamic afferents and a decrease in hippocampal sensitivity to auditory inputs in SZ patients with AVHs. The area under the ROC curve showed the diagnostic value of these two connections to distinguish SZ patients with AVHs from those without AVHs. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the strength of the connectivity from Broca's area to the auditory cortex and the severity of AVHs. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, augmented AVH-specific excitatory afferents from the thalamus to the auditory cortex in SZ patients, resulting in auditory perception without external auditory stimuli. Our results provide insights into the neural mechanisms underlying AVHs in SZ. This thalamic-auditory cortical-hippocampal dysconnectivity may also serve as a diagnostic biomarker of AVHs in SZ and a therapeutic target based on direct in vivo evidence.
PMID: 28224285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Resting-state functional connectivity changes within the default mode network and the salience network after antipsychotic treatment in early-phase schizophrenia.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017;13:397-406
Authors: Wang Y, Tang W, Fan X, Zhang J, Geng D, Jiang K, Zhu D, Song Z, Xiao Z, Liu D
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), particularly in the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), has been reported in schizophrenia, but little is known about the effects of antipsychotics on these networks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of atypical antipsychotics on DMN and SN and the relationship between these effects and symptom improvement in patients with schizophrenia.
METHODS: This was a prospective study of 33 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with antipsychotics at Shanghai Mental Health Center. Thirty-three healthy controls matched for age and gender were recruited. All subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Healthy controls were scanned only once; patients were scanned before and after 6-8 weeks of treatment.
RESULTS: In the DMN, the patients exhibited increased FC after treatment in the right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus and decreased FC in the right posterior cingulate/precuneus (P<0.005). In the SN, the patients exhibited decreased FC in the right cerebellum anterior lobe and left insula (P<0.005). The FC in the right posterior cingulate/precuneus in the DMN negatively correlated with the difference between the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score pre/post-treatment (r=-0.564, P=0.023) and negative trends with the difference in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score pre/post-treatment (r=-0.475, P=0.063) and the difference in PANSS-positive symptom scores (r=-0.481, P=0.060).
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that atypical antipsychotics could regulate the FC of certain key brain regions within the DMN in early-phase schizophrenia, which might be related to symptom improvement. However, the effects of atypical antipsychotics on SN are less clear.
PMID: 28223812 [PubMed - in process]
Asymmetric dopaminergic degeneration and levodopa alter functional corticostriatal connectivity bilaterally in experimental parkinsonism.
Exp Neurol. 2017 Feb 18;:
Authors: Monnot C, Zhang X, Nikkhou-Aski S, Damberg P, Svenningsson P
Asymmetric dopamine loss is commonly found in early Parkinson's disease (PD), but its effects on functional networks have been difficult to delineate in PD patients because of variations in age, disease duration and therapy. Here we used unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (6-OHDA) rats and controls and treated them with a single intraperitoneal injection of levodopa (L-DOPA) before performing diffusion weighted MRI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). In accordance with a neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, diffusion tensor imaging showed increased radial diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the lesioned substantia nigra. Likewise a deterministic connectometry approach showed increase of isotropic diffusion values in the medial forebrain bundle. rs-fMRI showed reduced interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) between the intact and the 6-OHDA lesioned caudate-putamen. Unexpectedly, there was an increased FC between the 6-OHDA lesioned caudate-putamen and sensorimotor cortices of both hemispheres. L-DOPA reversed the FC changes between the dopamine denervated caudate-putamen and the sensorimotor cortices, but not the reduced interhemispheric FC between caudate-putamina. Similarly, L-DOPA induced c-fos expression in both sensorimotor cortices, but only in the dopamine-depleted caudate-putamen. Taken together, these data suggest that asymmetric degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway results in functional asynchrony between the intact and 6-OHDA-lesioned caudate-putamen and increased interhemispheric synchrony between sensorimotor cortices. The results also indicate that the initial effect of L-DOPA is to restore functional corticostriatal connectivity rather than synchronize caudate-putamina.
PMID: 28223037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Abnormality of spontaneous brain activities in patients with chronic neck and shoulder pain: A resting-state fMRI study.
J Int Med Res. 2017 Feb;45(1):182-192
Authors: Yu CX, Ji TT, Song H, Li B, Han Q, Li L, Zhuo ZZ
Objectives Chronic gneck and shoulder pain (CNSP) is a common clinical symptom of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. Several studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have reported that most chronic pain diseases are accompanied by structural and functional changes in the brain. However, few rs-fMRI studies have examined CNSP. The current study investigated cerebral structural and functional changes in CNSP patients. Methods In total, 25 CNSP patients and 20 healthy volunteers participated in the study. 3D-T1W and rs-fMRI images were acquired. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was applied to structural images, and regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from rs-fMRI. Statistical analysis was performed on post-processing images and ReHo parameter maps. Results The results revealed no significant differences in brain structure between the two groups. In the patient group, ReHo values were significantly increased in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus and decreased in the left insula, superior frontal gyrus, middle cingulate gyrus, supplementary motor area, right postcentral gyrus, and superior parietal lobule. Conclusions This initial structural and rs-fMRI study of CNSP revealed characteristic features of spontaneous brain activity of CNSP patients. These findings may be helpful for increasing our understanding of the neuropathology of CNSP.
PMID: 28222620 [PubMed - in process]
The Impact of Alzheimer's Disease on the Resting State Functional Connectivity of Brain Regions Modulating Pain: A Cross Sectional Study.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2017 Feb 07;:
Authors: Monroe TB, Beach PA, Bruehl SP, Dietrich MS, Rogers BP, Gore JC, Atalla SW, Cowan RL
BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown why people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) receive less pain medication and report pain less frequently.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of AD on thermal psychophysics and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among sensory, affective, descending modulatory, and default mode structures.
METHODS: Controls (n = 23, 13 = female) and age-matched people with AD (n = 23, 13 = females) underwent psychophysical testing to rate perceptions of warmth, mild, and moderate pain and then completed resting-state fMRI. Between groups analysis in psychophysics and RSFC were conducted among pre-defined regions of interest implicated in sensory and affective dimensions of pain, descending pain modulation, and the default mode network.
RESULTS: People with AD displayed higher thermal thresholds for warmth and mild pain but similar moderate pain thresholds to controls. No between-group differences were found for unpleasantness at any percept. Relative to controls, people with AD demonstrated reduced RSFC between the right posterior insula and left anterior cingulate and also between right amygdala and right secondary somatosensory cortex. Moderate pain unpleasantness reports were associated with increased RSFC between right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left ACC in controls only.
CONCLUSIONS: While AD had little effect on unpleasantness, people with AD had increased thermal thresholds, altered RSFC, and no association of psychophysics with RSFC in pain regions. Findings begin to elucidate that in people with AD, altered integration of pain sensation, affect, and descending modulation may, in part, contribute to decreased verbal pain reports and thus decreased analgesic administration.
PMID: 28222526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Altered functional connectivity architecture of the brain in medication overuse headache using resting state fMRI.
J Headache Pain. 2017 Dec;18(1):25
Authors: Chen Z, Chen X, Liu M, Dong Z, Ma L, Yu S
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity density (FCD) could identify the abnormal intrinsic and spontaneous activity over the whole brain, and a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) could further reveal the altered functional network with the identified brain regions. This may be an effective assessment strategy for headache research. This study is to investigate the RSFC architecture changes of the brain in the patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) using FCD and RSFC methods.
METHODS: 3D structure images and resting-state functional MRI data were obtained from 37 MOH patients, 18 episodic migraine (EM) patients and 32 normal controls (NCs). FCD was calculated to detect the brain regions with abnormal functional activity over the whole brain, and the seed-based RSFC was performed to explore the functional network changes in MOH and EM.
RESULTS: The decreased FCD located in right parahippocampal gyrus, and the increased FCD located in left inferior parietal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus in MOH compared with NC, and in right caudate and left insula in MOH compared with EM. RSFC revealed that decreased functional connectivity of the brain regions with decreased FCD anchored in the right dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex, right frontopolar cortex in MOH, and in left temporopolar cortex and bilateral visual cortices in EM compared with NC, and in frontal-temporal-parietal pattern in MOH compared with EM.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provided evidence that MOH and EM suffered from altered intrinsic functional connectivity architecture, and the current study presented a new perspective for understanding the neuromechanism of MOH and EM pathogenesis.
PMID: 28220377 [PubMed - in process]
Risperidone Effects on Brain Dynamic Connectivity-A Prospective Resting-State fMRI Study in Schizophrenia.
Front Psychiatry. 2017;8:14
Authors: Lottman KK, Kraguljac NV, White DM, Morgan CJ, Calhoun VD, Butt A, Lahti AC
Resting-state functional connectivity studies in schizophrenia evaluating average connectivity over the entire experiment have reported aberrant network integration, but findings are variable. Examining time-varying (dynamic) functional connectivity may help explain some inconsistencies. We assessed dynamic network connectivity using resting-state functional MRI in patients with schizophrenia, while unmedicated (n = 34), after 1 week (n = 29) and 6 weeks of treatment with risperidone (n = 24), as well as matched controls at baseline (n = 35) and after 6 weeks (n = 19). After identifying 41 independent components (ICs) comprising resting-state networks, sliding window analysis was performed on IC timecourses using an optimal window size validated with linear support vector machines. Windowed correlation matrices were then clustered into three discrete connectivity states (a relatively sparsely connected state, a relatively abundantly connected state, and an intermediately connected state). In unmedicated patients, static connectivity was increased between five pairs of ICs and decreased between two pairs of ICs when compared to controls, dynamic connectivity showed increased connectivity between the thalamus and somatomotor network in one of the three states. State statistics indicated that, in comparison to controls, unmedicated patients had shorter mean dwell times and fraction of time spent in the sparsely connected state, and longer dwell times and fraction of time spent in the intermediately connected state. Risperidone appeared to normalize mean dwell times after 6 weeks, but not fraction of time. Results suggest that static connectivity abnormalities in schizophrenia may partly be related to altered brain network temporal dynamics rather than consistent dysconnectivity within and between functional networks and demonstrate the importance of implementing complementary data analysis techniques.
PMID: 28220083 [PubMed - in process]
Neural Correlates of Mirror Visual Feedback-Induced Performance Improvements: A Resting-State fMRI Study.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2017;11:54
Authors: Rjosk V, Lepsien J, Kaminski E, Hoff M, Sehm B, Steele CJ, Villringer A, Ragert P
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is a promising approach to enhance motor performance without training in healthy adults as well as in patients with focal brain lesions. There is preliminary evidence that a functional modulation within and between primary motor cortices as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) might be one candidate mechanism mediating the observed behavioral effects. Recently, studies using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that MVF-induced functional changes might not be restricted to the primary motor cortex (M1) but also include higher order regions responsible for perceptual-motor coordination and visual attention. However, aside from these instantaneous task-induced brain changes, little is known about learning-related neuroplasticity induced by MVF. Thus, in the present study, we assessed MVF-induced functional network plasticity with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). We performed rs-fMRI of 35 right-handed, healthy adults before and after performing a complex ball-rotation task. The primary outcome measure was the performance improvement of the untrained left hand (LH) before and after right hand (RH) training with MVF (mirror group [MG], n = 17) or without MVF (control group [CG], n = 18). Behaviorally, the MG showed superior performance improvements of the untrained LH. In resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC), an interaction analysis between groups showed changes in left visual cortex (V1, V2) revealing an increase of centrality in the MG. Within group comparisons showed further functional alterations in bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), left V4 and left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIP) in the MG, only. Importantly, a correlation analysis revealed a linear positive relationship between MVF-induced improvements of the untrained LH and functional alterations in left SM1. Our results suggest that MVF-induced performance improvements are associated with functional learning-related brain plasticity and have identified additional target regions for non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, a finding of potential interest for neurorehabilitation.
PMID: 28220070 [PubMed - in process]
Effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on Interregional Relation of Serotonin Transporter Availability in Major Depression.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2017;11:48
Authors: James GM, Baldinger-Melich P, Philippe C, Kranz GS, Vanicek T, Hahn A, Gryglewski G, Hienert M, Spies M, Traub-Weidinger T, Mitterhauser M, Wadsak W, Hacker M, Kasper S, Lanzenberger R
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate serotonergic neurotransmission by blocking reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. Up to now, it remains unclear how SSRIs achieve their antidepressant effect. However, task-based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have demonstrated connectivity changes between brain regions. Here, we use positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify SSRI's main target, the serotonin transporter (SERT), and assess treatment-induced molecular changes in the interregional relation of SERT binding potential (BPND). Nineteen out-patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 19 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study. Patients underwent three PET measurements with the radioligand [(11)C]DASB: (1) at baseline, (2) after a first SSRI dose; and (3) following at least 3 weeks of daily intake. Controls were measured once with PET. Correlation analyses were restricted to brain regions repeatedly implicated in MDD pathophysiology. After 3 weeks of daily SSRI administration a significant increase in SERT BPND correlations of anterior cingulate cortex and insula with the amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, pallidum and putamen (p < 0.05; false discovery rate, FDR corrected) was revealed. No significant differences were found when comparing MDD patients and HC at baseline. These findings are in line with the clinical observation that treatment response to SSRIs is often achieved only after a latency of several weeks. The elevated associations in interregional SERT associations may be more closely connected to clinical outcomes than regional SERT occupancy measures and could reflect a change in the regional interaction of serotonergic neurotransmission during antidepressant treatment.
PMID: 28220069 [PubMed - in process]
Resting State fMRI in Mice Reveals Anesthesia Specific Signatures of Brain Functional Networks and Their Interactions.
Front Neural Circuits. 2017;11:5
Authors: Bukhari Q, Schroeter A, Cole DM, Rudin M
fMRI studies in mice typically require the use of anesthetics. Yet, it is known that anesthesia alters responses to stimuli or functional networks at rest. In this work, we have used Dual Regression analysis Network Modeling to investigate the effects of two commonly used anesthetics, isoflurane and medetomidine, on rs-fMRI derived functional networks, and in particular to what extent anesthesia affected the interaction within and between these networks. Experimental data have been used from a previous study (Grandjean et al., 2014). We applied multivariate ICA analysis and Dual Regression to infer the differences in functional connectivity between isoflurane- and medetomidine-anesthetized mice. Further network analysis was performed to investigate within- and between-network connectivity differences between these anesthetic regimens. The results revealed five major networks in the mouse brain: lateral cortical, associative cortical, default mode, subcortical, and thalamic network. The anesthesia regime had a profound effect both on within- and between-network interactions. Under isoflurane anesthesia predominantly intra- and inter-cortical interactions have been observed, with only minor interactions involving subcortical structures and in particular attenuated cortico-thalamic connectivity. In contrast, medetomidine-anesthetized mice displayed subcortical functional connectivity including interactions between cortical and thalamic ICA components. Combining the two anesthetics at low dose resulted in network interaction that constituted the superposition of the interaction observed for each anesthetic alone. The study demonstrated that network modeling is a promising tool for analyzing the brain functional architecture in mice and comparing alterations therein caused by different physiological or pathological states. Understanding the differential effects of anesthetics on brain networks and their interaction is essential when interpreting fMRI data recorded under specific physiological and pathological conditions.
PMID: 28217085 [PubMed - in process]
Cross-cultural consistency and diversity in Intrinsic Functional Organization of Broca's Region.
Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 16;:
Authors: Zhang Y, Fan L, Caspers S, Heim S, Song M, Liu C, Mo Y, Eickhoff SB, Amunts K, Jiang T
As a core language area, Broca's region was consistently activated in a variety of language studies even across different language systems. Moreover, a high degree of structural and functional heterogeneity in Broca's region has been reported in many studies. This raised the issue of how the intrinsic organization of Broca's region effects by different language experiences in light of its subdivisions. To address this question, we used multi-center resting-state fMRI data to explore the cross-cultural consistency and diversity of Broca's region in terms of its subdivisions, connectivity patterns and modularity organization in Chinese and German speakers. A consistent topological organization of the 13 subdivisions within the extended Broca's region was revealed on the basis of a new in-vivo parcellation map, which corresponded well to the previously reported receptorarchitectonic map. Based on this parcellation map, consistent functional connectivity patterns and modularity organization of these subdivisions were found. Some cultural difference in the functional connectivity patterns was also found, for instance stronger connectivity in Chinese subjects between area 6v2 and the motor hand area, as well as higher correlations between area 45p and middle frontal gyrus. Our study suggests that a generally invariant organization of Broca's region, together with certain regulations of different language experiences on functional connectivity, might exists to support language processing in human brain.
PMID: 28215624 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Childhood trauma-related alterations in brain function during a Theory-of-Mind task in schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2017 Feb 15;:
Authors: Quidé Y, Ong XH, Mohnke S, Schnell K, Walter H, Carr VJ, Green MJ
Childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia that affects brain functions associated with higher cognitive processes, including social cognition. Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM), or mentalizing skills, are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia, and are also evident in individuals exposed to childhood trauma. However, the impact of childhood trauma exposure on brain function during social cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear. We thus examined the association between childhood trauma and brain function during the performance of a ToM task in 47 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. All participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an established visual-cartoon affective ToM task. Whole-brain multiple regression analysis was performed on ToM-related brain activation, with CTQ total score as regressor of interest, while accounting for the effects of age, sex, diagnosis, symptom severity, behavioural performance, intelligence and medications levels. First, using a small-volume correction approach within a mask made of key regions for ToM [including bilateral temporo-parietal junctions (TPJ), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus], total CTQ scores were positively associated with activation of the PCC/precuneus. Second, exploratory analyses for the rest of the brain (i.e., ROIs masked-out), revealed a positive association between trauma exposure and activation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and a negative association with activation of the anterior section of the TPJ. These results suggest that childhood trauma exposure may, at least partially, contribute to functional alterations of brain regions essential for effective mental state inference in schizophrenia.
PMID: 28215391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Abnormal Functional Networks in Resting-State of the Sub-cortical Chronic Stroke Patients with Hemiplegia.
Brain Res. 2017 Feb 15;:
Authors: Zhang Y, Wang L, Yang J, Yan R, Zhang J, Sang L, Li P, Liu H, Qiu M
The aim of this study isto identify the properties of the motor network and the default-mode network (DMN) of the sub-cortical chronic stroke patients, and to study the relationship between the network connectivity and the neurological scales of the stroke patients.Twenty-eight chronic stroke patients (28-77 days post-stroke) and twenty-eight healthy control subjects (HCs) were recruited. Independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to obtain the motor network and the DMN. Two sample t-tests was used to compare the differences of the motor network and the DMN between the patients and HCs. Additionally, correlations between the network connectivity and the behavioral scores of the stroke patients were studied. Compared with the HCs, the motor network connectivity of the stroke patients was significantly increased in the contralesional superior parietal lobule, but decreased in ipsilesional M1. The DMN connectivity of the stroke patients was significantly increased in the contralesional middle frontal gyrus, but decreased in bilateral precuneus, ipsilesional supramarginal and angular gyrus. Moreover, the motor network connectivity of the contralesional superior parietal lobule was positively correlated with the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) score of the stroke patients.Our results showed abnormal motor network and DMN during the resting-state of the stroke patients, suggesting that resting-state network connectivity could serve as biomarkers for future stroke studies. Brain-behavior relationships could be taken into account while evaluating stroke patients.
PMID: 28214523 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Anomalous network architecture of the resting brain in children who stutter.
J Fluency Disord. 2017 Jan 25;:
Authors: Chang SE, Angstadt M, Chow HM, Etchell AC, Garnett EO, Choo AL, Kessler D, Welsh RC, Sripada C
PURPOSE: We combined a large longitudinal neuroimaging dataset that includes children who do and do not stutter and a whole-brain network analysis in order to examine the intra- and inter-network connectivity changes associated with stuttering. Additionally, we asked whether whole brain connectivity patterns observed at the initial year of scanning could predict persistent stuttering in later years.
METHODS: A total of 224 high-quality resting state fMRI scans collected from 84 children (42 stuttering, 42 controls) were entered into an independent component analysis (ICA), yielding a number of distinct network connectivity maps ("components") as well as expression scores for each component that quantified the degree to which it is expressed for each child. These expression scores were compared between stuttering and control groups' first scans. In a second analysis, we examined whether the components that were most predictive of stuttering status also predicted persistence in stuttering.
RESULTS: Stuttering status, as well as stuttering persistence, were associated with aberrant network connectivity involving the default mode network and its connectivity with attention, somatomotor, and frontoparietal networks. The results suggest developmental alterations in the balance of integration and segregation of large-scale neural networks that support proficient task performance including fluent speech motor control.
CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the view that stuttering is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder and provides comprehensive brain network maps that substantiate past theories emphasizing the importance of considering situational, emotional, attentional and linguistic factors in explaining the basis for stuttering onset, persistence, and recovery.
PMID: 28214015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Neuronal Networks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Brain Topogr. 2017 Feb 17;:
Authors: Sotnikova A, Soff C, Tagliazucchi E, Becker K, Siniatchkin M
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design. After randomization, sixteen adolescents with ADHD underwent either anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, 1 mA, 20 min) or sham stimulation with simultaneous fMRI during n-back WM task. Both in one-back and two-back conditions, tDCS led to a greater activation (compared with sham stimulation) of the left DLPFC (under the electrode), left premotor cortex, left supplementary motor cortex, and precuneus. The effects of tDCS were long-lasting and influenced resting state functional connectivity even 20 min after the stimulation, with patterns of strengthened DLPFC connectivity after tDCS outlining the WM network. In summary, anodal tDCS caused increased neuronal activation and connectivity, not only in the brain area under the stimulating electrode (i.e. left DLPFC) but also in other, more remote brain regions. Because of moderate behavioral effects of tDCS, the significance of this technique for ADHD treatment has to be investigated in further studies.
PMID: 28213645 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The heterogeneity of the left dorsal premotor cortex evidenced by multimodal connectivity-based parcellation and functional characterization.
Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 14;:
Authors: Genon S, Reid A, Li H, Fan L, Müller VI, Cieslik EC, Hoffstaedter F, Langner R, Grefkes C, Laird AR, Fox PT, Jiang T, Amunts K, Eickhoff SB
Despite the common conception of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) as a single brain region, its diverse connectivity profiles and behavioral heterogeneity argue for a differentiated organization of the PMd. A previous study revealed that the right PMd is characterized by a rostro-caudal and a ventro-dorsal distinction dividing it into five subregions: rostral, central, caudal, ventral and dorsal. The present study assessed whether a similar organization is present in the left hemisphere, by capitalizing on a multimodal data-driven approach combining connectivity-based parcellation (CBP) based on meta-analytic modeling, resting-state functional connectivity, and probabilistic diffusion tractography. The resulting PMd modules were then characterized based on multimodal functional connectivity and a quantitative analysis of associated behavioral functions. Analyzing the clusters consistent across all modalities revealed an organization of the left PMd that mirrored its right counterpart to a large degree. Again, caudal, central and rostral modules reflected a cognitive-motor gradient and a premotor eye-field was found in the ventral part of the left PMd. In addition, a distinct module linked to abstract cognitive functions was observed in the rostro-ventral left PMd across all CBP modalities, implying greater differentiation of higher cognitive functions for the left than the right PMd.
PMID: 28213119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The global signal in fMRI: Nuisance or Information?
Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 14;:
Authors: Liu TT, Nalci A, Falahpour M
The global signal is widely used as a regressor or normalization factor for removing the effects of global variations in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. However, there is considerable controversy over its use because of the potential bias that can be introduced when it is applied to the analysis of both task-related and resting-state fMRI studies. In this paper we take a closer look at the global signal, examining in detail the various sources that can contribute to the signal. For the most part, the global signal has been treated as a nuisance term, but there is growing evidence that it may also contain valuable information. We also examine the various ways that the global signal has been used in the analysis of fMRI data, including global signal regression, global signal subtraction, and global signal normalization. Furthermore, we describe new ways for understanding the effects of global signal regression and its relation to the other approaches.
PMID: 28213118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]