New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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Abnormal functional connectivity within resting-state networks is related to rTMS-based therapy effects of treatment resistant depression: A pilot study.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45

Abnormal functional connectivity within resting-state networks is related to rTMS-based therapy effects of treatment resistant depression: A pilot study.

J Affect Disord. 2017 Apr 26;218:75-81

Authors: Ge R, Blumberger DM, Downar J, Daskalakis ZJ, Dipinto AA, Tham JCW, Lam R, Vila-Rodriguez F

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment resistant depression (TRD) remains a clinical challenge, and finding biomarkers that predict treatment response are a long sought goal to precisely indicate treatments. This pilot study aims to characterize brain dysfunction in TRD patients who underwent rTMS to define neuroimaging biomarkers that discriminate non-responders (NR) from responders (R).
METHODS: 20 TRD patients who underwent a course of rTMS to the left DLPFC were categorized into R and NR groups based on a >50% reduction in HRSD scores. Utilizing resting-state fMRI and ICA techniques, this study compared baseline RSNs of R vs. NR as well as TRD vs. healthy volunteer group. Regression analysis was conducted to link regions with clinical improvements. ROC analysis was further conducted to confirm the utility of the identified regions in classifying the patients.
RESULTS: Prior to treatment, non-responders displayed hyper-connectivity in ACC/VMPFC, PCC/pC, dACC and insula within RSNs that have been associated with MDD pathology. Regression results showed that regions associated with clinical improvements overlapped largely with regions that showed aberrant connectivity. ACC/VMPFC, dACC and left insula, which are hub regions of DMN and SN, exhibited excellent performance (highest sensitivity=100% and highest specificity=82%) in discriminating the response status of the patients.
LIMITATIONS: Relatively small sample size.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insight into fMRI predictive measures of treatment response to rTMS treatment, and demonstrate the potential of RSNs-based biomarkers in predicting response to rTMS treatment. Future studies are needed to validate the application of these measures to inform individual treatment indications.

PMID: 28460314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state functional connectivity between right anterior insula and right orbital frontal cortex correlate with insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Resting-state functional connectivity between right anterior insula and right orbital frontal cortex correlate with insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Neuroimage Clin. 2017;15:1-7

Authors: Fan J, Zhong M, Zhu X, Gan J, Liu W, Niu C, Liao H, Zhang H, Yi J, Tan C

Abstract
Few studies have explored the neurobiological basis of insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), though the salience network (SN) has been implicated in insight deficits in schizophrenia. This study was then designed to investigate whether resting-state (rs) functional connectivity (FC) of SN was associated with insight level in OCD patients. We analyzed rs-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 21 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI), 19 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI), and 24 healthy controls (HCs). Seed-based whole-brain FC and ROI (region of interest)-wise connectivity analyses were performed with seeds/ROIs in the bilateral anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The right AI-right medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC) connectivity was found to be uniquely decreased in the OCD-PI group, and the value of this aberrant connectivity correlated with insight level in OCD patients. In addition, we found that the OCD-GI group had significantly increased right AI-left dACC connectivity within the SN, relative to HCs (overall trend for groups: OCD-GI > OCD-PI > HC). Our findings suggest that abnormal right AI-right mOFC FC may mediate insight deficits in OCD, perhaps due to impaired encoding and integration of self-evaluative information about OCD-related beliefs and behaviors. Our findings indicate a SN connectivity dissociation between OCD-GI and OCD-PI patients and support the notion of considering OCD-GI and OCD-PI as two distinct disorder subtypes.

PMID: 28458998 [PubMed - in process]

Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy Reversed Insula Subregions Functional Connectivity in Asthmatic Patients.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy Reversed Insula Subregions Functional Connectivity in Asthmatic Patients.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:105

Authors: Zhang Y, Yang Y, Bian R, Yin Y, Hou Z, Yue Y, Chen H, Yuan Y

Abstract
Background: Group cognitive behavior therapy (GCBT) is an effective treatment in improving self-management behaviors and quality of life for asthmatic patients. However, the mechanisms by which GCBT improves asthma-related clinical symptoms remain unknown. Previous studies have indicated that insula is an important region involved in the neuropathology of asthma. Therefore, we examined the possible alteration of functional connectivity (FC) in insula subregions after GCBT in asthmatic patients. Methods: Forty-two asthmatic patients and 60 healthy controls (HCs) received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan and clinical assessments, 17 asthmatic patients completed GCBT treatment consisting of 8 sessions, and then received rs-fMRI scan and clinical assessments. Results: Asthmatic patients had greater left ventral anterior insula (vAI) FC with the left cerebellum posterior lobe, right middle temporal gyrus, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), but less FC with bilateral postcentral gyrus, bilateral occipital lobe, and left precentral gyrus compared with HCs. FC between left posterior insula and left medial frontal gyrus also increased in the patients. In addition, right vAI showed increased FC with right caudate and left putamen. FC between right dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and left calcarine however decreased. The increase in FC in insula subregions were significantly improved following GCBT. FC between the left vAI connectivity and left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with the percentage of improvement in 17-items Hamilton depression rating scale scores, and FC between the right dAI and left calcarine was negatively associated with the improvement percentage in asthma control test scores. Conclusions: This study in the first time demonstrated that GCBT led to significant improvement of FC between insula subregions and other brain regions. Clinical Trial Registration: An investigation of therapeutic mechanism in asthmatic patients: based on the results of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Registration number: ChiCTR-COC-15007442) (http://www.chictr.org.cn/usercenter.aspx).

PMID: 28458637 [PubMed - in process]

Resting state brain network function in major depression - Depression symptomatology, antidepressant treatment effects, future research.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Resting state brain network function in major depression - Depression symptomatology, antidepressant treatment effects, future research.

J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Apr 24;92:147-159

Authors: Brakowski J, Spinelli S, Dörig N, Bosch OG, Manoliu A, Holtforth MG, Seifritz E

Abstract
The alterations of functional connectivity brain networks in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been subject of a large number of studies. Using different methodologies and focusing on diverse aspects of the disease, research shows heterogeneous results lacking integration. Disrupted network connectivity has been found in core MDD networks like the default mode network (DMN), the central executive network (CEN), and the salience network, but also in cerebellar and thalamic circuitries. Here we review literature published on resting state brain network function in MDD focusing on methodology, and clinical characteristics including symptomatology and antidepressant treatment related findings. There are relatively few investigations concerning the qualitative aspects of symptomatology of MDD, whereas most studies associate quantitative aspects with distinct resting state functional connectivity alterations. Such depression severity associated alterations are found in the DMN, frontal, cerebellar and thalamic brain regions as well as the insula and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. Similarly, different therapeutical options in MDD and their effects on brain function showed patchy results. Herein, pharmaceutical treatments reveal functional connectivity alterations throughout multiple brain regions notably the DMN, fronto-limbic, and parieto-temporal regions. Psychotherapeutical interventions show significant functional connectivity alterations in fronto-limbic networks, whereas electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation result in alterations of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, the DMN, the CEN and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. While it appears clear that functional connectivity alterations are associated with the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD, future research should also generate a common strategy for data acquisition and analysis, as a least common denominator, to set the basis for comparability across studies and implementation of functional connectivity as a scientifically and clinically useful biomarker.

PMID: 28458140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation in premenstrual syndrome: A resting state fMRI study.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Altered fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation in premenstrual syndrome: A resting state fMRI study.

J Affect Disord. 2017 Apr 24;218:41-48

Authors: Liao H, Duan G, Liu P, Liu Y, Pang Y, Liu H, Tang L, Tao J, Wen D, Li S, Liang L, Deng D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is becoming highly prevalent among female and is characterized by emotional, physical and behavior symptoms. Previous evidence suggested functional dysregulation of female brain was expected to be involved in the etiology of PMS. The aim of present study was to evaluate the alterations of spontaneous brain activity in PMS patients based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
METHODS: 20 PMS patients and 21 healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scanning during luteal phase. All participants were asked to complete a prospective daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) questionnaire.
RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, the results showed that PMS patients had increased fALFF in bilateral precuneus, left hippocampus and left inferior temporal cortex, and decreased fALFF in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum at luteal phase. Moreover, the DRSP scores of PMS patients were negatively correlated with the mean fALFF in ACC and positively correlated with the fALFF in precuneus.
LIMITATIONS: (1) the study did not investigate whether or not abnormal brain activity differences between groups in mid-follicular phase, and within-group changes. between phases.(2) it was relatively limited sample size and the participants were young; (3) fALFF could not provide us with more holistic information of brain network;(4) the comparisons of PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were not involved in the study.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows abnormal spontaneous brain activity in PMS patients revealed by fALFF, which could provide neuroimaging evidence to further improve our understanding of the underlying neural mechanism of PMS.

PMID: 28458114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Changes in the interictal and early postictal diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance parameters in familial spontaneous epileptic cats.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Changes in the interictal and early postictal diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance parameters in familial spontaneous epileptic cats.

Epilepsy Res. 2017 Apr 23;133:76-82

Authors: Hamamoto Y, Hasegawa D, Mizoguchi S, Yu Y, Wada M, Kuwabara T, Fujiwara-Igarashi A, Fujita M

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The familial spontaneous epileptic cat (FSEC) is thought to be a good genetic model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the current study, cerebral diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to confirm the functional deficit zone in the FSEC and evaluate the effect of a single seizure on different brain regions.
METHODS: Six FSECs and six healthy control cats were used in this study. MRI was performed in the interictal state (resting state for control) and postictal state immediately after the vestibular stimulation-induced generalized epileptic seizure (control cats received the same stimulation as the FSECs). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy and perfusion parameters (i.e., relative regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and relative regional mean transit time (rMTT)) were measured in the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and gray and white matter.
RESULTS: In the interictal state, the rCBV and rMTT in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in FSECs, compared to the control. In the postictal state, FSECs had a significantly decreased ADC and an increased rCBV, rCBF, and rMTT in the hippocampus, and an increased rMTT in the amygdala, compared to the interictal state.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that FSECs had interictal hypoperfusion in the hippocampus, and postictal hypodiffusion and hyperperfusion in the hippocampus and/or amygdala. These findings suggested that the hippocampus and/or amygdala act as the functional deficit and expanded seizure-onset zones in FSECs.

PMID: 28458103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Negative Affectivity, Aging, and Depression: Results From the Neurobiology of Late-Life Depression (NBOLD) Study.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Negative Affectivity, Aging, and Depression: Results From the Neurobiology of Late-Life Depression (NBOLD) Study.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 03;:

Authors: Steffens DC, Wang L, Manning KJ, Pearlson GD

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Neuroticism is a common yet understudied condition in older adults. We hypothesized that presence of high negativity affectivity (NA), a key feature of neuroticism, would be associated with different prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity and connectivity patterns in depressed and never-depressed older adults.
METHODS: This is a baseline cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study of 52 depressed and 36 never-depressed older adults. Assessments included NA scores from the Type D Scale-14 and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores. All subjects had a 3T brain functional magnetic resonance imaging resting scan, neuronal activity determined by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) were obtained, and resting state functional connectivity (FC) analyses were performed. Analyses of covariance were conducted on ALFFs and FC to examine significant differences between groups.
RESULTS: In the ALFF analyses there were clearly different patterns between depressed and comparison groups in the correlation of ALFFs and NA. The correlation differences between the two groups were significant in the dorsomedial PFC, insula, amygdala, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). FC analyses revealed different between-group connectivity patterns. Significantly higher ventromedial PFC-amygdala FC with NA correlation was found in the depressed group than that in the never-depressed group.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms differential activity of the dorsal and ventral regions of the medial PFC in individuals with high neuroticism. Our findings suggest increased rostral medial PFC activity may be a marker of resilience to depression in the elderly and decreased anterior ventromedial PFC, PCC, and amygdala activity may be a result of successful emotion regulation in never-depressed higher NA individuals.

PMID: 28457805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Objective analysis of the topological organization of the human cortical visual connectome suggests three visual pathways.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Objective analysis of the topological organization of the human cortical visual connectome suggests three visual pathways.

Cortex. 2017 Apr 07;:

Authors: Haak KV, Beckmann CF

Abstract
The cortical visual system is composed of many areas serving various visual functions. In non-human primates, these are broadly organised into two distinct processing pathways: a ventral pathway for object recognition, and a dorsal pathway for action. In humans, recent theoretical proposals suggest the possible existence of additional pathways, but direct empirical evidence has yet to be presented. Here, we estimated the connectivity patterns between 22 human visual areas using resting-state functional MRI data of 470 individuals, leveraging the unprecedented data quantity and quality of the Human Connectome Project and a novel probabilistic atlas. An objective, data-driven analysis into the topological organisation of connectivity and subsequent quantitative confirmation revealed a highly significant triple dissociation between the retinotopic areas on the dorsal, ventral and lateral surfaces of the human occipital lobe. This suggests that the functional organisation of the human visual system involves not two but three cortical pathways.

PMID: 28457575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Association of Resting Metabolism in the Fear Neural Network With Extinction Recall Activations and Clinical Measures in Trauma-Exposed Individuals.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Association of Resting Metabolism in the Fear Neural Network With Extinction Recall Activations and Clinical Measures in Trauma-Exposed Individuals.

Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 01;173(9):930-8

Authors: Marin MF, Song H, VanElzakker MB, Staples-Bradley LK, Linnman C, Pace-Schott EF, Lasko NB, Shin LM, Milad MR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Exposure-based therapy, an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), relies on extinction learning principles. In PTSD patients, dysfunctional patterns in the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction have been observed using resting-state or functional activation measures. It remains undetermined whether resting activity predicts activations during extinction recall or PTSD symptom severity. Moreover, it remains unclear whether trauma exposure per se affects resting activity in this circuitry. The authors employed a multimodal approach to examine the relationships among resting metabolism, clinical symptoms, and activations during extinction recall.
METHOD: Three cohorts were recruited: PTSD patients (N=24), trauma-exposed individuals with no PTSD (TENP) (N=20), and trauma-unexposed healthy comparison subjects (N=21). Participants underwent a resting positron emission tomography scan 4 days before a functional MRI fear conditioning and extinction paradigm.
RESULTS: Amygdala resting metabolism negatively correlated with clinical functioning (as measured by the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale) in the TENP group, and hippocampal resting metabolism negatively correlated with clinical functioning in the PTSD group. In the PTSD group, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) resting metabolism positively correlated with PTSD symptom severity, and it predicted increased dACC activations but decreased hippocampal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activations during extinction recall. The TENP group had lower amygdala resting metabolism compared with the PTSD and healthy comparison groups, and it exhibited lower hippocampus resting metabolism relative to the healthy comparison group.
CONCLUSIONS: Resting metabolism in the fear circuitry correlated with functioning, PTSD symptoms, and extinction recall activations, further supporting the relevance of this network to the pathophysiology of PTSD. The study findings also highlight the fact that chronic dysfunction in the amygdala and hippocampus is demonstrable in PTSD and other trauma-exposed individuals, even without exposure to an evocative stimulus.

PMID: 26917165 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of Hippocampal and Amygdala Connectivity on the Relationship Between Preschool Poverty and School-Age Depression.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Effect of Hippocampal and Amygdala Connectivity on the Relationship Between Preschool Poverty and School-Age Depression.

Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Jun 01;173(6):625-34

Authors: Barch D, Pagliaccio D, Belden A, Harms MP, Gaffrey M, Sylvester CM, Tillman R, Luby J

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that poverty experienced in early childhood, as measured by income-to-needs ratio, has an impact on functional brain connectivity at school age, which in turn mediates influences on child negative mood/depression.
METHOD: Participants were from a prospective longitudinal study of emotion development. Preschoolers 3-5 years of age were originally ascertained from primary care and day care sites in the St. Louis area and then underwent annual behavioral assessments for up to 12 years. Healthy preschoolers and those with a history of depression symptoms underwent neuroimaging at school age. Using functional MRI, the authors examined whole brain resting-state functional connectivity with the left and right hippocampus and amygdala.
RESULTS: Lower income-to-needs ratio at preschool age was associated with reduced connectivity between hippocampus and amygdala and a number of regions at school age, including the superior frontal cortex, lingual gyrus, posterior cingulate, and putamen. Lower income-to-needs ratio predicted greater negative mood/depression severity at school age, as did connectivity between the left hippocampus and the right superior frontal cortex and between the right amygdala and the right lingual gyrus. Connectivity mediated the relationship between income-to-needs ratio and negative mood/depression at the time of scanning.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that poverty in early childhood, as assessed by at least one measure, may influence the development of hippocampal and amygdala connectivity in a manner leading to negative mood symptoms during later childhood.

PMID: 26771739 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Structural connectome topology relates to regional BOLD signal dynamics in the mouse brain.

Mon, 05/01/2017 - 12:20
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Structural connectome topology relates to regional BOLD signal dynamics in the mouse brain.

Chaos. 2017 Apr;27(4):047405

Authors: Sethi SS, Zerbi V, Wenderoth N, Fornito A, Fulcher BD

Abstract
Brain dynamics are thought to unfold on a network determined by the pattern of axonal connections linking pairs of neuronal elements; the so-called connectome. Prior work has indicated that structural brain connectivity constrains pairwise correlations of brain dynamics ("functional connectivity"), but it is not known whether inter-regional axonal connectivity is related to the intrinsic dynamics of individual brain areas. Here we investigate this relationship using a weighted, directed mesoscale mouse connectome from the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) time-series data measured in 184 brain regions in eighteen anesthetized mice. For each brain region, we measured degree, betweenness, and clustering coefficient from weighted and unweighted, and directed and undirected versions of the connectome. We then characterized the univariate rs-fMRI dynamics in each brain region by computing 6930 time-series properties using the time-series analysis toolbox, hctsa. After correcting for regional volume variations, strong and robust correlations between structural connectivity properties and rs-fMRI dynamics were found only when edge weights were accounted for, and were associated with variations in the autocorrelation properties of the rs-fMRI signal. The strongest relationships were found for weighted in-degree, which was positively correlated to the autocorrelation of fMRI time series at time lag τ = 34 s (partial Spearman correlation ρ=0.58), as well as a range of related measures such as relative high frequency power (f > 0.4 Hz: ρ=-0.43). Our results indicate that the topology of inter-regional axonal connections of the mouse brain is closely related to intrinsic, spontaneous dynamics such that regions with a greater aggregate strength of incoming projections display longer timescales of activity fluctuations.

PMID: 28456172 [PubMed - in process]

Dynamic spatiotemporal variability of alpha-BOLD relationships during the resting-state and task-evoked responses.

Sun, 04/30/2017 - 11:40
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Dynamic spatiotemporal variability of alpha-BOLD relationships during the resting-state and task-evoked responses.

Neuroimage. 2017 Apr 25;:

Authors: Mayhew SD, Bagshaw AP

Abstract
Accurate characterization of the spatiotemporal relationship between two of the most prominent neuroimaging measures of neuronal activity, the 8-13Hz, occipito-parietal EEG alpha oscillation and the BOLD fMRI signal, must encompass the intrinsically dynamic nature of both alpha power and brain function. Here, during the eyes-open resting state, we use a 16s sliding-window analysis and demonstrate that the mean spatial network of dynamic alpha-BOLD correlations is highly comparable to the static network calculated over six minutes. However, alpha-BOLD correlations showed substantial spatiotemporal variability within-subjects and passed through many different configurations such that the static network was fully represented in only ~10% of 16s epochs, with visual and parietal regions (coherent on average) often opposingly correlated with each other or with alpha. We find that the common assumption of static-alpha BOLD correlations greatly oversimplifies temporal variation in brain network dynamics. Fluctuations in alpha-BOLD coupling significantly depended upon the instantaneous amplitude of alpha power, and primary and lateral visual areas were most strongly negatively correlated with alpha during different alpha power states, possibly suggesting the action of multiple alpha mechanisms. Dynamic alpha-BOLD correlations could not be explained by eye-blinks/movements, head motion or non-neuronal physiological variability. Individual's mean alpha power and frequency were found to contribute to between-subject variability in alpha-BOLD correlations. Additionally, application to a visual stimulation dataset showed that dynamic alpha-BOLD correlations provided functional information pertaining to the brain's response to stimulation by exhibiting spatiotemporal fluctuations related to variability in the trial-by-trial BOLD response magnitude. Significantly weaker visual alpha-BOLD correlations were found both preceding and following small amplitude BOLD response trials compared to large response trials.

PMID: 28454820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

From the neurobiological basis of comorbid alcohol dependence and depression to psychological treatment strategies: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

Sun, 04/30/2017 - 11:40
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From the neurobiological basis of comorbid alcohol dependence and depression to psychological treatment strategies: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 28;17(1):153

Authors: Becker A, Ehret AM, Kirsch P

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder and depression occur commonly in the community. Even though this high-prevalence comorbidity is associated with poorer posttreatment outcomes and greater utilization of costly treatment services, existing treatment trials often exclude patients with comorbid depressive and alcohol use disorders. Past research suggests that symptoms such as craving and anhedonia might be associated with alterations within the reward circuit, while emotion regulation deficits are related to disruptions within the default mode network. The aim of this clinical neuroimaging study is to transfer previous research about the reward circuit and default mode network underlying alcohol use disorder and depression to achieve a better understanding of neural signatures characterizing their comorbidity. In addition, the neurobiological results will be used to test whether two psychotherapeutic intervention programs, mindfulness-based training and behavioral activation training, are able to positively influence the identified pathomechanisms.
METHODS: By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 60 comorbid alcohol dependent and depressed patients are compared to 30 patients with depression only, 30 patients with alcohol use disorder only and 30 healthy control participants. Comorbid patients are randomized to either receive a behavioral activation or mindfulness based training and asked to participate in a second fMRI session and 3 month follow-up assessment. Thereby, we plan to explore whether these brief group psychotherapeutic intervention programs are able to positively influence the identified neurobiological pathomechanisms. The primary outcomes are reward and default mode network activity and connectivity evoked by paradigms measuring different facets of reward and emotion processing. Secondary outcome measures include craving and depression scores, as well as relapse rates. Predictors include participants' characteristics, personality traits and indicators of mental health.
DISCUSSION: The objective of the project is to identify common and/or distinct neural signatures underlying the comorbidity of alcohol dependence and depression. If the neurobiological understanding of alcohol addiction and depression is improved, this could potentially serve as a key predictor of treatment response to specific types of behavioral or mindfulness therapies hypothesized to alter reward and resting state systems.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00010249 . The trial was registered January 23th 2017.

PMID: 28454522 [PubMed - in process]

Altered resting-state intra- and inter- network functional connectivity in patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder.

Sun, 04/30/2017 - 11:40
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Altered resting-state intra- and inter- network functional connectivity in patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder.

PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0176494

Authors: Zhao Z, Huang T, Tang C, Ni K, Pan X, Yan C, Fan X, Xu D, Luo Y

Abstract
Patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder (PSPD) usually experience various functional impairments in pain, emotion, and cognition, which cannot be fully explained by a physiological process or a physical disorder. However, it is still not clear for the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of PSPD. The present study aimed to explore the intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) differences between PSPD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 13 PSPD patients and 23 age- and gender-matched HCs. We used independent component analysis on resting-state fMRI data to calculate intra- and inter-network FCs, and we used the two-sample t-test to detect the FC differences between groups. Spearman correlation analysis was employed to evaluate the correlations between FCs and clinical assessments. As compared to HCs, PSPD patients showed decreased coactivations in the right superior temporal gyrus within the anterior default-mode network and the anterior cingulate cortex within the salience network, and increased coactivations in the bilateral supplementary motor areas within the sensorimotor network and both the left posterior cingulate cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex within the anterior default-mode network. In addition, we found that the PSPD patients showed decreased FNCs between sensorimotor network and audio network as well as visual network, between default-mode network and executive control network as well as audio network and between salience network and executive control network as well as right frontoparietal network, and increased FNCs between sensorimotor network and left frontoparietal network, salience network as well as cerebellum network, which were negatively correlated with the clinical assessments in PSPD patients. Our findings suggest that PSPD patients experience large-scale reorganization at the level of the functional networks, which suggests a possible mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of PSPD.

PMID: 28453543 [PubMed - in process]

Cortical thickness reductions associate with abnormal resting-state functional connectivity in non-neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

Sun, 04/30/2017 - 11:40
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Cortical thickness reductions associate with abnormal resting-state functional connectivity in non-neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2017 Apr 27;:

Authors: Niu C, Tan X, Liu X, Han K, Niu M, Xu J, Zhao L, Wu Y, Deng F, Huang Q, Wu X, Huang H, Xu Y, Huang R

Abstract
To detect the abnormal cortical thickness and disrupted brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE). Using T1-weighted 3D brain structural data, we first determined the regions with abnormal cortical thickness in a cohort of 33 adult female non-NPSLE patients. By taking brain regions with significantly reduced cortical thickness as the seeds, we calculated their RSFC based on the resting-fMRI data and detected the relationship between the RSFC and cortical thickness in the non-NPSLE patients. Compared to the controls, the non-NPSLE patients showed significantly cortical thinning in the left fusiform gyrus (FUS.L), left lingual gyrus (LING.L), right lingual gyrus (LING.R) and left superior frontal cortex (SFC.L). As for the RSFC, statistical analyses indicated that the abnormal cortical thickness in LING.L is associated with increased RSFC in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC.L), and cortical thinning in SFC.L associated with decreased RSFC in left cerebellum 6 (CRBL 6.L) in non-NPSLE patients. In addition, in non-NPSLE patients, the decreased cortical thickness in LING.L was correlated to the increased RSFC in PCC.L, and decreased cortical thickness in SFC.L was correlated to the decreased RSFC in CRBL 6.L. Our findings suggest that the cortical abnormalities may affect brain intrinsic connectivity in non-NPSLE patients.

PMID: 28451920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effect of DRD4 receptor -616 C/G polymorphism on brain structure and functional connectivity density in pediatric primary nocturnal enuresis patients.

Sun, 04/30/2017 - 11:40
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Effect of DRD4 receptor -616 C/G polymorphism on brain structure and functional connectivity density in pediatric primary nocturnal enuresis patients.

Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 27;7(1):1226

Authors: Yu B, Chang N, Lu Y, Ma H, Liu N, Guo Q

Abstract
The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) promoter (-616; rs747302) has been associated with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE); however, its relationship with neuroimaging has not been investigated. Therefore, we assessed the effects of the DRD4 -616 C/G single nucleotide polymorphism on the gray matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity density (FCD) during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in children with PNE using voxel-based morphometry and FCD methods. Genomic and imaging data were obtained from 97 children with PNE and 105 healthy controls. DRD4 -616 C/G was genotyped. Arousal from sleep (AS) was assessed on a scale of 1-8. Both the main effect of genotype and the group (PNE/control)-by-genotype interaction on GMV and FCD were calculated. Our results showed that C-allele carriers were associated with a higher AS, decreased GMV and FCD in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex; children with PNE carrying the C allele exhibit decreased GMV and FCD in the thalamus; however, controls carrying the C allele exhibit increased FCD in the posterior cingulate cortex. These effects of genetic variation of the DRD4 locus may help us understand the genetic susceptibility of the DRD4 -616 C allele to PNE.

PMID: 28450726 [PubMed - in process]

Privileged Functional Connectivity Between the Visual Word Form Area and the Language System.

Sun, 04/30/2017 - 11:40
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Privileged Functional Connectivity Between the Visual Word Form Area and the Language System.

J Neurosci. 2017 Apr 27;:

Authors: Stevens WD, Kravitz DJ, Peng CS, Henry Tessler M, Martin A

Abstract
The visual word form area (VWFA) is a region in the left occipitotemporal sulcus of literate individuals that is purportedly specialized for visual word recognition. However, there is considerable controversy about its functional specificity and connectivity, with some arguing that it serves as a domain-general, rather than word-specific, visual processor. The VWFA is a critical region for testing hypotheses about the nature of cortical organization, because it is known to develop only through experience (i.e., reading acquisition), and widespread literacy is too recent to have influenced genetic determinants of brain organization. Using a combination of advanced fMRI analysis techniques with data from 33 healthy adult human participants, including individual functional localization, multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), and high-resolution resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses, we demonstrate that: 1) the VWFA can discriminate words from non-word letter strings (pseudowords); 2) it has preferential RSFC with Wernicke's area and other core regions of the language system; 3) the strength RSFC between the VWFA and Wernicke's area predicts performance on a semantic classification task with words but not other categories of visual stimuli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the VWFA is specialized for lexical processing of real words by virtue of its functional connectivity with Wernicke's area.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe visual word form area (VWFA) is critical for determining the nature of category-related organization of the ventral visual system. However, its functional specificity and connectivity are fiercely debated. Recent work concluded that the VWFA is a domain-general, rather than word-specific, visual processor with no preferential functional connectivity with the language system. Using more advanced techniques, our results stand in stark contrast to these earlier findings. We demonstrate that the VWFA is highly specialized for lexical processing of real words, and that a fundamental factor driving this specialization is its preferential intrinsic functional connectivity with core regions of the language system. Our results support the hypothesis that intrinsic functional connectivity contributes to category-related specialization within the human ventral visual system.

PMID: 28450544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Abnormal Intrinsic Functional Hubs in Severe Male Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Evidence from a Voxel-Wise Degree Centrality Analysis.

Sun, 04/30/2017 - 11:40
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Abnormal Intrinsic Functional Hubs in Severe Male Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Evidence from a Voxel-Wise Degree Centrality Analysis.

PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164031

Authors: Li H, Li L, Shao Y, Gong H, Zhang W, Zeng X, Ye C, Nie S, Chen L, Peng D

Abstract
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs.
METHODS: Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study. All participants underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and clinical and cognitive evaluation. Voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) was measured across the whole brain, and group difference in DC was compared. The relationship between the abnormal DC value and clinical variables was assessed using a linear correlation analysis.
RESULTS: Remarkably similar spatial distributions of the functional hubs (high DC) were found in both groups. However, OSA patients exhibited a pattern of significantly reduced regional DC in the left middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and DC was increased in the right orbital frontal cortex, bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, and bilateral lentiform nucleus, including the putamen, extending to the hippocampus, and the inferior temporal gyrus, which overlapped with the functional hubs. Furthermore, a linear correlation analysis revealed that the DC value in the posterior cingulate cortex and left superior frontal gyrus were positively correlated with Montreal cognitive assessment scores, The DC value in the left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal lobule were negatively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index and arousal index in OSA patients.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that OSA patients exhibited specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs including relatively reduced and increased DC. This expands our understanding of the functional characteristics of OSA, which may provide new insights into understanding the dysfunction and pathophysiology of OSA patients.

PMID: 27723821 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Right Dorsal Premotor Mosaic: Organization, Functions, and Connectivity.

Sun, 04/30/2017 - 11:40
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The Right Dorsal Premotor Mosaic: Organization, Functions, and Connectivity.

Cereb Cortex. 2017 Mar 01;27(3):2095-2110

Authors: Genon S, Li H, Fan L, Müller VI, Cieslik EC, Hoffstaedter F, Reid AT, Langner R, Grefkes C, Fox PT, Moebus S, Caspers S, Amunts K, Jiang T, Eickhoff SB

Abstract
The right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of humans has been reported to be involved in a broad range of motor and cognitive functions. We explored the basis of this behavioral heterogeneity by performing a connectivity-based parcellation using meta-analytic approach applied to PMd coactivations. We compared our connectivity-based parcellation results with parcellations obtained through resting-state functional connectivity and probabilistic diffusion tractography. Functional connectivity profiles and behavioral decoding of the resulting PMd subregions allowed characterizing their respective behavior profile. These procedures divided the right PMd into 5 distinct subregions that formed a cognitive-motor gradient along a rostro-caudal axis. In particular, we found 1) a rostral subregion functionally connected with prefrontal cortex, which likely supports high-level cognitive processes, such as working memory, 2) a central subregion showing a mixed behavioral profile and functional connectivity to parietal regions of the dorsal attention network, and 3) a caudal subregion closely integrated with the motor system. Additionally, we found 4) a dorsal subregion, preferentially related to hand movements and connected to both cognitive and motor regions, and 5) a ventral subregion, whose functional profile fits the concept of an eye movement-related field. In conclusion, right PMd may be considered as a functional mosaic formed by 5 subregions.

PMID: 26965906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Early Development of Functional Network Segregation Revealed by Connectomic Analysis of the Preterm Human Brain.

Sun, 04/30/2017 - 11:40
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Early Development of Functional Network Segregation Revealed by Connectomic Analysis of the Preterm Human Brain.

Cereb Cortex. 2017 Mar 01;27(3):1949-1963

Authors: Cao M, He Y, Dai Z, Liao X, Jeon T, Ouyang M, Chalak L, Bi Y, Rollins N, Dong Q, Huang H

Abstract
Human brain functional networks are topologically organized with nontrivial connectivity characteristics such as small-worldness and densely linked hubs to support highly segregated and integrated information processing. However, how they emerge and change at very early developmental phases remains poorly understood. Here, we used resting-state functional MRI and voxel-based graph theory analysis to systematically investigate the topological organization of whole-brain networks in 40 infants aged around 31 to 42 postmenstrual weeks. The functional connectivity strength and heterogeneity increased significantly in primary motor, somatosensory, visual, and auditory regions, but much less in high-order default-mode and executive-control regions. The hub and rich-club structures in primary regions were already present at around 31 postmenstrual weeks and exhibited remarkable expansions with age, accompanied by increased local clustering and shortest path length, indicating a transition from a relatively random to a more organized configuration. Moreover, multivariate pattern analysis using support vector regression revealed that individual brain maturity of preterm babies could be predicted by the network connectivity patterns. Collectively, we highlighted a gradually enhanced functional network segregation manner in the third trimester, which is primarily driven by the rapid increases of functional connectivity of the primary regions, providing crucial insights into the topological development patterns prior to birth.

PMID: 26941380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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