The dynamic functional connectome: State-of-the-art and perspectives.
Neuroimage. 2016 Dec 26;:
Authors: Preti MG, Bolton TA, Ville DV
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has highlighted the rich structure of brain activity in absence of a task or stimulus. A great effort has been dedicated in the last two decades to investigate functional connectivity (FC), i.e. the functional interplay between different regions of the brain, which was for a long time assumed to have stationary nature. Only recently was the dynamic behaviour of FC revealed, showing that on top of correlational patterns of spontaneous fMRI signal fluctuations, connectivity between different brain regions exhibits meaningful variations within a typical resting-state fMRI experiment. As a consequence, a considerable amount of work has been directed to assessing and characterising dynamic FC (dFC), and several different approaches were explored to identify relevant FC fluctuations. At the same time, several questions were raised about the nature of dFC, which would be of interest only if brought back to a neural origin. In support of this, correlations with electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, demographic and behavioural data were established, and various clinical applications were explored, where the potential of dFC could be preliminarily demonstrated. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive description of the dFC approaches proposed so far, and point at the directions that we see as most promising for the future developments of the field. Advantages and pitfalls of dFC analyses are addressed, helping the readers to orient themselves through the complex web of available methodologies and tools.
PMID: 28034766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
COMT Val158Met polymorphism influences the susceptibility to framing in decision-making: OFC-amygdala functional connectivity as a mediator.
Hum Brain Mapp. 2016 May;37(5):1880-92
Authors: Gao X, Gong P, Liu J, Hu J, Li Y, Yu H, Gong X, Xiang Y, Jiang C, Zhou X
Individuals tend to avoid risk in a gain frame, in which options are presented in a positive way, but seek risk in a loss frame, in which the same options are presented negatively. Previous studies suggest that emotional responses play a critical role in this "framing effect." Given that the Met allele of COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with the negativity bias during emotional processing, this study investigated whether this polymorphism is associated with individual susceptibility to framing and which brain areas mediate this gene-behavior association. Participants were genotyped, scanned in resting state, and completed a monetary gambling task with options (sure vs risky) presented as potential gains or losses. The Met allele carriers showed a greater framing effect than the Val/Val homozygotes as the former gambled more than the latter in the loss frame. Moreover, the gene-behavior association was mediated by resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral amygdala. Met allele carriers showed decreased RSFC, thereby demonstrating higher susceptibility to framing than Val allele carriers. These findings demonstrate the involvement of COMT Val158Met polymorphism in the framing effect in decision-making and suggest RSFC between OFC and amygdala as a neural mediator underlying this gene-behavior association. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1880-1892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 26917235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Modular-level alterations of structure-function coupling in schizophrenia connectome.
Hum Brain Mapp. 2016 Dec 29;:
Authors: Sun Y, Dai Z, Li J, Collinson SL, Sim K
Convergent evidences have revealed that schizophrenia is associated with brain dysconnectivity, which leads to abnormal network organization. However, discrepancies were apparent between the structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) studies, and the relationship between structural and functional deficits in schizophrenia remains largely unknown. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural diffusion tensor imaging were performed in 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy volunteers (patients/controls = 19/17 after head motion rejection). Functional and structural brain networks were obtained for each participant. Graph theoretical approaches were employed to parcellate the FC networks into functional modules. The relationships between the entries of SC and FC were estimated within each module to identify group differences and their correlations with clinical symptoms. Although five common functional modules (including the default mode, occipital, subcortical, frontoparietal, and central modules) were identified in both groups, the patients showed a significantly reduced modularity in comparison with healthy participants. Furthermore, we found that schizophrenia-related aberrations of SC-FC coupling exhibited complex patterns among modules. Compared with controls, patients showed an increased SC-FC coupling in the default mode and the central modules. Moreover, significant SC-FC decoupling was demonstrated in the occipital and the subcortical modules, which was associated with longer duration of illness and more severe clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that altered module-dependent SC-FC coupling may underlie abnormal brain function and clinical symptoms observed in schizophrenia and highlighted the potential for using new multimodal neuroimaging biomarkers for diagnosis and severity evaluation of schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 28032370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Intrinsic functional connectivity of fronto-temporal networks in adolescents with early psychosis.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 28;:
Authors: Solé-Padullés C, Castro-Fornieles J, de la Serna E, Sánchez-Gistau V, Romero S, Puig O, Calvo A, Bargalló N, Baeza I, Sugranyes G
Adults with psychotic disorders have abnormal connectivity of fronto-temporal networks. However, whether these abnormalities are present in adolescents with early psychosis has not been fully assessed. One-hundred and thirty-nine adolescents aged 12-18 underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Following motion correction, data were available for 44 participants with a psychosis risk syndrome, 34 patients with a first episode psychosis (FEP) and 35 healthy controls. Independent component analysis was performed to assess functional networks showing a fronto-temporal scope; this identified a language and a salience network. Mean fractional anisotropy was measured in clusters showing between-group differences in intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). For the language network, there was a group effect within the right middle/inferior frontal gyrus, explained by reduced iFC in patients with an FEP relative to healthy controls, while in participants with a psychosis risk syndrome values of iFC were intermediate. In this region, values of iFC were positively correlated with mean fractional anisotropy in patients with an FEP. No group differences were observed in the salience network. Reduced iFC of the language network, in association with disrupted white matter microstructure, may characterize FEP during adolescence.
PMID: 28032201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Effects of isoflurane anesthesia on resting-state fMRI signals and functional connectivity within primary somatosensory cortex of monkeys.
Brain Behav. 2016 Dec;6(12):e00591
Authors: Wu TL, Mishra A, Wang F, Yang PF, Gore JC, Chen LM
INTRODUCTION: Correlated low-frequency fluctuations of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) signals have been widely used for inferring intrinsic brain functional connectivity (FC). In animal studies, accurate estimate of anesthetic effects on rsfMRI signals is demanded for reliable interpretations of FC changes. We have previously shown that inter-regional FC can reliably delineate local millimeter-scale circuits within digit representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) subregions (areas 3a, 3b, and 1) in monkeys under isoflurane anesthesia. The goals of this study are to determine (1) the general effects of isoflurane on rsfMRI signals in the S1 circuit and (2) whether the effects are functional- and regional- dependent, by quantifying the relationships between isoflurane levels, power and inter-regional correlation coefficients in digit and face regions of distinct S1 subregions.
METHODS: Functional MRI data were collected from male adult squirrel monkeys at three different isoflurane levels (1.25%, 0.875%, and 0.5%). All scans were acquired on a 9.4T magnet with a 3-cm-diameter surface transmit-receive coil centered over the S1 cortex. Power and seed-based inter-regional functional connectivity analyses were subsequently performed.
RESULTS: As anesthesia level increased, we observed (1) diminishing amplitudes of signal fluctuations, (2) reduced power of fluctuations in the low-frequency band used for connectivity measurements, (3) decreased inter-voxel connectivity around seed regions, and (4) weakened inter-regional FC across all pairs of regions of interest (digit-to-digit). The low-frequency power measures derived from rsfMRI signals from control muscle regions, however, did not exhibit any isoflurane level-related changes. Within the isoflurane dosage range we tested, the inter-regional functional connectivity differences were still detectable, and the effects of isoflurane did not differ across region-of-interest (ROI) pairs.
CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that isoflurane induced similar dose-dependent suppressive effects on the power of rsfMRI signals and local fine-scale FC across functionally related but distinct S1 subregions.
PMID: 28032008 [PubMed - in process]
fMRI functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray in PTSD and its dissociative subtype.
Brain Behav. 2016 Dec;6(12):e00579
Authors: Harricharan S, Rabellino D, Frewen PA, Densmore M, Théberge J, McKinnon MC, Schore AN, Lanius RA
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hyperarousal and active fight or flight defensive responses. By contrast, the dissociative subtype of PTSD, characterized by depersonalization and derealization symptoms, is frequently accompanied by additional passive or submissive defensive responses associated with autonomic blunting. Here, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a central role in defensive responses, where the dorsolateral (DL-PAG) and ventrolateral PAG (VL-PAG) are thought to mediate active and passive defensive responses, respectively.
METHODS: We examined PAG subregion (dorsolateral and ventrolateral) resting-state functional connectivity in three groups: PTSD patients without the dissociative subtype (n = 60); PTSD patients with the dissociative subtype (n = 37); and healthy controls (n = 40) using a seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM12.
RESULTS: All PTSD patients showed extensive DL- and VL-PAG functional connectivity at rest with areas associated with emotional reactivity and defensive action as compared to controls (n = 40). Although all PTSD patients demonstrated DL-PAG functional connectivity with areas associated with initiation of active coping strategies and hyperarousal (e.g., dorsal anterior cingulate; anterior insula), only dissociative PTSD patients exhibited greater VL-PAG functional connectivity with brain regions linked to passive coping strategies and increased levels of depersonalization (e.g., temporoparietal junction; rolandic operculum).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest greater defensive posturing in PTSD patients even at rest and demonstrate that those with the dissociative subtype show unique patterns of PAG functional connectivity when compared to those without the subtype. Taken together, these findings represent an important first step toward identifying neural and behavioral targets for therapeutic interventions that address defensive strategies in trauma-related disorders.
PMID: 28032002 [PubMed - in process]
Structural and functional neural correlates of spatial navigation: a combined voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity study.
Brain Behav. 2016 Dec;6(12):e00572
Authors: Hao X, Huang Y, Li X, Song Y, Kong X, Wang X, Yang Z, Zhen Z, Liu J
INTRODUCTION: Navigation is a fundamental and multidimensional cognitive function that individuals rely on to move around the environment. In this study, we investigated the neural basis of human spatial navigation ability.
METHODS: A large cohort of participants (N > 200) was examined on their navigation ability behaviorally and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were then used to explore the corresponding neural basis of spatial navigation.
RESULTS: The gray matter volume (GMV) of the bilateral parahippocampus (PHG), retrosplenial complex (RSC), entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HPC), and thalamus (THAL) was correlated with the participants' self-reported navigational ability in general, and their sense of direction in particular. Further fMRI studies showed that the PHG, RSC, and EC selectively responded to visually presented scenes, whereas the HPC and THAL showed no selectivity, suggesting a functional division of labor among these regions in spatial navigation. The resting-state functional connectivity analysis further revealed a hierarchical neural network for navigation constituted by these regions, which can be further categorized into three relatively independent components (i.e., scene recognition component, cognitive map component, and the component of heading direction for locomotion, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study combined multi-modality imaging data to illustrate that multiple brain regions may work collaboratively to extract, integrate, store, and orientate spatial information to guide navigation behaviors.
PMID: 28031996 [PubMed - in process]
Support vector machine classification of arterial volume-weighted arterial spin tagging images.
Brain Behav. 2016 Dec;6(12):e00549
Authors: Shah YS, Hernandez-Garcia L, Jahanian H, Peltier SJ
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, machine-learning techniques have gained growing popularity in medical image analysis. Temporal brain-state classification is one of the major applications of machine-learning techniques in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain data. This article explores the use of support vector machine (SVM) classification technique with motor-visual activation paradigm to perform brain-state classification into activation and rest with an emphasis on different acquisition techniques.
METHODS: Images were acquired using a recently developed variant of traditional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling technique called arterial volume-weighted arterial spin tagging (AVAST). The classification scheme is also performed on images acquired using blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) and traditional perfusion-weighted arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques for comparison.
RESULTS: The AVAST technique outperforms traditional pseudocontinuous ASL, achieving classification accuracy comparable to that of BOLD contrast images.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that AVAST has superior signal-to-noise ratio and improved temporal resolution as compared with traditional perfusion-weighted ASL and reduced sensitivity to scanner drift as compared with BOLD. Owing to these characteristics, AVAST lends itself as an ideal choice for dynamic fMRI and real-time neurofeedback experiments with sustained activation periods.
PMID: 28031993 [PubMed - in process]
Functional Dysconnection of the Inferior Frontal Gyrus in Young People With Bipolar Disorder or at Genetic High Risk.
Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Aug 18;:
Authors: Roberts G, Lord A, Frankland A, Wright A, Lau P, Levy F, Lenroot RK, Mitchell PB, Breakspear M
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by a dysregulation of affect and impaired integration of emotion with cognition. These traits are also expressed in probands at high genetic risk of BD. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a key cortical hub in the circuits of emotion and cognitive control, and it has been frequently associated with BD. Here, we studied resting-state functional connectivity of the left IFG in participants with BD and in those at increased genetic risk.
METHODS: Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared 49 young BD participants, 71 individuals with at least one first-degree relative with BD (at-risk), and 80 control subjects. We performed between-group analyses of the functional connectivity of the left IFG and used graph theory to study its local functional network topology. We also used machine learning to study classification based solely on the functional connectivity of the IFG.
RESULTS: In BD, the left IFG was functionally dysconnected from a network of regions, including bilateral insulae, ventrolateral prefrontal gyri, superior temporal gyri, and the putamen (p < .001). A small network incorporating neighboring insular regions and the anterior cingulate cortex showed weaker functional connectivity in at-risk than control participants (p < .006). These constellations of regions overlapped with frontolimbic regions that a machine learning classifier selected as predicting group membership with an accuracy significantly greater than chance.
CONCLUSIONS: Functional dysconnectivity of the IFG from regions involved in emotional regulation may represent a trait abnormality for BD and could potentially aid clinical diagnosis.
PMID: 28031150 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Altered resting state functional connectivity of fear and reward circuitry in comorbid PTSD and major depression.
Depress Anxiety. 2016 Dec 28;:
Authors: Zhu X, Helpman L, Papini S, Schneier F, Markowitz JC, Van Meter PE, Lindquist MA, Wager TD, Neria Y
BACKGROUND: Individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder (PTSD-MDD) often exhibit greater functional impairment and poorer treatment response than individuals with PTSD alone. Research has not determined whether PTSD-MDD is associated with different network connectivity abnormalities than PTSD alone.
METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) patterns of brain regions involved in fear and reward processing in three groups: patients with PTSD-alone (n = 27), PTSD-MDD (n = 21), and trauma-exposed healthy controls (TEHCs, n = 34). Based on previous research, seeds included basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA), and nucleus accumbens (NAcc).
RESULTS: Regardless of MDD comorbidity, PTSD was associated with decreased connectivity of BLA-orbitalfrontal cortex (OFC) and CMA-thalamus pathways, key to fear processing, and fear expression, respectively. PTSD-MDD, compared to PTSD-alone and TEHC, was associated with decreased connectivity across multiple amygdala and striatal-subcortical pathways: BLA-OFC, NAcc-thalamus, and NAcc-hippocampus. Further, while both the BLA-OFC and the NAcc-thalamus pathways were correlated with MDD symptoms, PTSD symptoms correlated with the amygdala pathways (BLA-OFC; CMA-thalamus) only.
CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid PTSD-MDD may be associated with multifaceted functional connectivity alterations in both fear and reward systems. Clinical implications are discussed.
PMID: 28030757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Investigating resting-state functional connectivity in the cervical spinal cord at 3T.
Neuroimage. 2016 Dec 24;:
Authors: Eippert F, Kong Y, Winkler AM, Andersson JL, Finsterbusch J, Büchel C, Brooks JC, Tracey I
The study of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal has recently been extended from the brain to the spinal cord. Two ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have provided evidence for reproducible resting-state connectivity between the dorsal horns as well as between the ventral horns, and a study in non-human primates has shown that these resting-state signals are impacted by spinal cord injury. As these studies were carried out at ultra-high field strengths using region-of-interest (ROI) based analyses, we investigated whether such resting-state signals could also be observed at the clinically more prevalent field strength of 3T. In a reanalysis of a sample of 20 healthy human participants who underwent a resting-state fMRI acquisition of the cervical spinal cord, we were able to observe significant dorsal horn connectivity as well as ventral horn connectivity, but no consistent effects for connectivity between dorsal and ventral horns, thus replicating the human 7T results. These effects were not only observable when averaging along the acquired length of the spinal cord, but also when we examined each of the acquired spinal segments separately, which showed similar patterns of connectivity. Finally, we investigated the robustness of these resting-state signals against variations in the analysis pipeline by varying the type of ROI creation, temporal filtering, nuisance regression and connectivity metric. We observed that - apart from the effects of band-pass filtering - ventral horn connectivity showed excellent robustness, whereas dorsal horn connectivity showed moderate robustness. Together, our results provide evidence that spinal cord resting-state connectivity is a robust and spatially consistent phenomenon that could be a valuable tool for investigating the effects of pathology, disease progression, and treatment response in neurological conditions with a spinal component, such as spinal cord injury.
PMID: 28027960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Potential pitfalls when denoising resting state fMRI data using nuisance regression.
Neuroimage. 2016 Dec 23;:
Authors: Bright MG, Tench CR, Murphy K
In resting state fMRI, it is necessary to remove signal variance associated with noise sources, leaving cleaned fMRI time-series that more accurately reflect the underlying intrinsic brain fluctuations of interest. This is commonly achieved through nuisance regression, in which the fit is calculated of a noise model of head motion and physiological processes to the fMRI data in a General Linear Model, and the "cleaned" residuals of this fit are used in further analysis. We examine the statistical assumptions and requirements of the General Linear Model, and whether these are met during nuisance regression of resting state fMRI data. Using toy examples and real data we show how pre-whitening, temporal filtering and temporal shifting of regressors impact model fit. Based on our own observations, existing literature, and statistical theory, we make the following recommendations when employing nuisance regression: pre-whitening should be applied to achieve valid statistical inference of the noise model fit parameters; temporal filtering should be incorporated into the noise model to best account for changes in degrees of freedom; temporal shifting of regressors, although merited, should be achieved via optimisation and validation of a single temporal shift. We encourage all readers to make simple, practical changes to their fMRI denoising pipeline, and to regularly assess the appropriateness of the noise model used. By negotiating the potential pitfalls described in this paper, and by clearly reporting the details of nuisance regression in future manuscripts, we hope that the field will achieve more accurate and precise noise models for cleaning the resting state fMRI time-series.
PMID: 28025128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Investigation of NAA and NAAG dynamics underlying visual stimulation using MEGA-PRESS in a functional MRS experiment.
Magn Reson Imaging. 2016 Apr;34(3):239-45
Authors: Landim RC, Edden RA, Foerster B, Li LM, Covolan RJ, Castellano G
N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is responsible for the majority of the most prominent peak in (1)H-MR spectra, and has been used as diagnostic marker for several pathologies. However, ~10% of this peak can be attributed to N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide whose release may be triggered by intense neuronal activation. Separate measurement of NAA and NAAG using MRS is difficult due to large superposition of their spectra. Specifically, in functional MRS (fMRS) experiments, most work has evaluated the sum NAA+NAAG, which does not appear to change during experiments. The aim of this work was to design and perform an fMRS experiment using visual stimulation and a spectral editing sequence, MEGA-PRESS, to further evaluate the individual dynamics of NAA and NAAG during brain activation. The functional paradigm used consisted of three blocks, starting with a rest (baseline) block of 320 s, followed by a stimulus block (640 s) and a rest block (640 s). Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. On average, subjects followed a pattern of NAA decrease and NAAG increase during stimulation, with a tendency to return to basal levels at the end of the paradigm, with a peak NAA decrease of -(21±19)% and a peak NAAG increase of (64±62)% (Wilcoxon test, p<0.05). These results may relate to: 1) the only known NAAG synthesis pathway is from NAA and glutamate; 2) a relationship between NAAG and the BOLD response.
PMID: 26656908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Distinctive Structural and Effective Connectivity Changes of Semantic Cognition Network across Left and Right Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients.
Neural Plast. 2016;2016:8583420
Authors: Fan X, Yan H, Shan Y, Shang K, Wang X, Wang P, Shan Y, Lu J, Zhao G
Occurrence of language impairment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients is common and left mTLE patients always exhibit a primary problem with access to names. To explore different neuropsychological profiles between left and right mTLE patients, the study investigated both structural and effective functional connectivity changes within the semantic cognition network between these two groups and those from normal controls. We found that gray matter atrophy of left mTLE patients was more severe than that of right mTLE patients in the whole brain and especially within the semantic cognition network in their contralateral hemisphere. It suggested that seizure attacks were rather targeted than random for patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the dominant hemisphere. Functional connectivity analysis during resting state fMRI revealed that subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in the left HS patients were no longer effectively connected. Further, we found that, unlike in right HS patients, increased causal linking between ipsilateral regions in the left HS epilepsy patients cannot make up for their decreased contralateral interaction. It suggested that weakened contralateral connection and disrupted effective interaction between subregions of the unitary, transmodal hub of the ATL may be the primary cause of anomia in the left HS patients.
PMID: 28018680 [PubMed - in process]
Changed Hub and Corresponding Functional Connectivity of Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Major Depressive Disorder.
Front Neuroanat. 2016;10:120
Authors: Wu H, Sun H, Xu J, Wu Y, Wang C, Xiao J, She S, Huang J, Zou W, Peng H, Lu X, Huang G, Jiang T, Ning Y, Wang J
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders. In the brain, the hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of MDD remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in MDD. First, we constructed the whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map in each subject in 34 MDD patients and 34 gender-, age- and education level-matched healthy controls (HCs). Next, the two-sample t-test was applied to compare the FCS maps between HC and MDD patients and identified significant decrease of FCS in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) in MDD patients. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses of sgACC showed disruptions in functional connectivity with posterior insula, middle and inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus and cerebellum in MDD patients. Furthermore, the changed FCS of sgACC and functional connections to sgACC were significantly correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores in MDD patients. The results of the present study revealed the abnormal hub of sgACC and its corresponding disrupted frontal-limbic-visual cognitive-cerebellum functional networks in MDD. These findings may provide a new insight for the diagnosis and treatment of MDD.
PMID: 28018183 [PubMed]
Investigating the Group-Level Impact of Advanced Dual-Echo fMRI Combinations.
Front Neurosci. 2016;10:571
Authors: Kettinger Á, Hill C, Vidnyánszky Z, Windischberger C, Nagy Z
Multi-echo fMRI data acquisition has been widely investigated and suggested to optimize sensitivity for detecting the BOLD signal. Several methods have also been proposed for the combination of data with different echo times. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these advanced echo combination methods provide advantages over the simple averaging of echoes when state-of-the-art group-level random-effect analyses are performed. Both resting-state and task-based dual-echo fMRI data were collected from 27 healthy adult individuals (14 male, mean age = 25.75 years) using standard echo-planar acquisition methods at 3T. Both resting-state and task-based data were subjected to a standard image pre-processing pipeline. Subsequently the two echoes were combined as a weighted average, using four different strategies for calculating the weights: (1) simple arithmetic averaging, (2) BOLD sensitivity weighting, (3) temporal-signal-to-noise ratio weighting and (4) temporal BOLD sensitivity weighting. Our results clearly show that the simple averaging of data with the different echoes is sufficient. Advanced echo combination methods may provide advantages on a single-subject level but when considering random-effects group level statistics they provide no benefit regarding sensitivity (i.e., group-level t-values) compared to the simple echo-averaging approach. One possible reason for the lack of clear advantages may be that apart from increasing the average BOLD sensitivity at the single-subject level, the advanced weighted averaging methods also inflate the inter-subject variance. As the echo combination methods provide very similar results, the recommendation is to choose between them depending on the availability of time for collecting additional resting-state data or whether subject-level or group-level analyses are planned.
PMID: 28018165 [PubMed]
Cross-Frequency rs-fMRI Network Connectivity Patterns Manifest Differently for Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls.
IEEE Signal Process Lett. 2016 Aug;23(8):1076-1080
Authors: Miller RL, Yaesoubi M, Calhoun VD
Patterns of resting state fMRI functional network connectivity in schizophrenia patients have been shown to differ markedly from that of healthy controls. While some studies have explored connectivity within fixed frequency bands, the question of network phase synchrony across disparate frequency bands, or cross-frequency connectivity, has remained surprisingly underexplored. Computational modeling at the neuronal scale however has long acknowledged the existence of coupled fast and slow subsystems. Here we present preliminary evidence that cross-frequency coupling exists at the network level, that it patterns in meaningful ways over functional domains, and that this patterning differs between the healthy population and individuals with diagnosed schizophrenia.
PMID: 28018124 [PubMed]
Relationship of a common OXTR gene variant to brain structure and default mode network function in healthy humans.
Neuroimage. 2016 Dec 22;:
Authors: Wang J, Braskie MN, Hafzalla GW, Faskowitz J, McMahon KL, de Zubicaray GI, Wright MJ, Yu C, Thompson PM
A large body of research suggests that oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms may influence both social behaviors and psychiatric conditions related to social deficits, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia, and mood and anxiety disorders. However, the neural mechanism underlying these associations is still unclear. Relative to controls, patients with these psychiatric conditions show differences in brain structure, and in resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) signal synchronicity among default mode network (DMN) regions (also known as functional connectivity). We used a stepwise imaging genetics approach in 328 healthy young adults to test the hypothesis that 10 SNPs in OXTR are associated with differences in DMN synchronicity and structure of some of the associated brain regions. As OXTR effects may be sex-dependent, we also tested whether our findings were modulated by sex. OXTR rs2254298 A allele carriers had significantly lower rsFC with PCC in a cluster extending from the right fronto-insular cortex to the putamen and globus pallidus, and in bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) compared to individuals with the GG genotype; all observed effects were found only in males. Moreover, compared to the male individuals with GG genotype ofrs2254298, the male A allele carriers demonstrated significantly thinner cortical gray matter in the bilateral dACC. Our findings suggest that there may be sexually dimorphic mechanisms by which a naturally occurring variation of the OXTR gene may influence brain structure and function in DMN-related regions implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders.
PMID: 28017919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Intrinsic inter-network brain dysfunction correlates with symptom dimensions in late-life depression.
J Psychiatr Res. 2016 Dec 12;87:71-80
Authors: Li W, Wang Y, Ward BD, Antuono PG, Li SJ, Goveas JS
Prior studies have demonstrated dysfunctions within the core neurocognitive networks (the executive control [ECN], default mode [DMN] and salience [SN] networks) in late-life depression (LLD). Whether inter-network dysfunctional connectivity is present in LLD, and if such disruptions are associated with core symptom dimensions is unknown. A cross-sectional resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging investigation was conducted of LLD (n = 39) and age- and gender-equated healthy comparison (HC) (n = 29) participants. Dual regression independent component analysis approach was used to identify components that represented the ECN, DMN and SN. The intrinsic inter-network connectivity was compared between LLD and HC participants and the relationship of inter-network connectivity abnormalities with dimensional measures was examined. Relative to HC participants, LLD subjects showed decreased inter-network connectivity between the bilateral ECN and default mode subcortical (thalamus, basal ganglia and ventral striatum) networks, and the left ECN and SN insula component; and increased inter-network connections between the left ECN and posterior DMN and salience (dorsal anterior cingulate) network components. Distinct inter-network connectivity abnormalities correlated with depression and anxiety severity, and executive dysfunction in LLD participants. LLD subjects also showed pronounced intra-network connectivity differences within the ECN, whereas fewer but significant DMN and SN disruptions were also detected. Investigating the intrinsic inter-network functional connectivity could provide a mechanistic framework to better understand the neural basis that underlies core symptom dimensions in LLD. Inter-network connectivity measures have the potential to be neuroimaging biomarkers of symptom dimensions comprising LLD, and may assist in developing symptom-specific treatment algorithms.
PMID: 28017917 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Aberrant spontaneous low-frequency brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis of resting-state fMRI studies.
Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Dec 22;:
Authors: Pan P, Zhu L, Yu T, Shi H, Zhang B, Qin R, Zhu X, Qian L, Zhao H, Zhou H, Xu Y
Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have provided strong evidence of abnormal spontaneous brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the conclusions have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis of whole-brain rs-fMRI studies that measured differences in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) between aMCI patients and healthy controls was conducted using the Seed-based d Mapping software package. Twelve studies reporting 14 datasets were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to healthy controls, patients with aMCI showed decreased ALFFs in the bilateral precuneus/posterior cingulate cortices, bilateral frontoinsular cortices, left occipitotemporal cortex, and right supramarginal gyrus and increased ALFFs in the right lingual gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, left hippocampus, and left inferior temporal gyrus. A meta-regression analysis demonstrated that the increased severity of cognitive impairment in aMCI patients was associated with greater decreases in ALFFs in the cuneus/precuneus cortices. Our comprehensive meta-analysis suggests that aMCI is associated with widespread aberrant regional spontaneous brain activity, predominantly involving the default mode, salience, and visual networks, which contributes to understanding its pathophysiology.
PMID: 28017880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]