New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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Intrinsic connectivity networks underlying individual differences in control-averse behavior.

Thu, 08/30/2018 - 12:00
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Intrinsic connectivity networks underlying individual differences in control-averse behavior.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2018 Aug 29;:

Authors: Rudorf S, Baumgartner T, Markett S, Schmelz K, Wiest R, Fischbacher U, Knoch D

Abstract
When people sense that another person tries to control their decisions, some people will act against the control, whereas others will not. This individual tendency to control-averse behavior can have far-reaching consequences, such as engagement in illegal activities or noncompliance with medical treatments. Although individual differences in control-averse behavior have been well documented in behavioral studies, their neurological basis is less well understood. Here, we use a neural trait approach to examine whether individual differences in control-averse behavior might be linked to stable brain-based characteristics. To do so, we analyze the association between intrinsic connectivity networks as measured by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and control-averse behavior in an economic exchange game. In this game, subjects make choices that are either free or controlled by another person, with real consequences to both interaction partners. We find that the individual level of control-averse behavior can be positively predicted by intrinsic connectivity within the salience network, but not the central executive network or the default mode network. Specifically, subjects with a more prominent connectivity hub in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex show greater levels of control-averse behavior. This finding provides the first evidence that the heterogeneity in control-averse behavior might originate in systematic differences of the stable functional brain organization.

PMID: 30156744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Overall survival time prediction for high-grade glioma patients based on large-scale brain functional networks.

Thu, 08/30/2018 - 12:00
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Overall survival time prediction for high-grade glioma patients based on large-scale brain functional networks.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2018 Aug 28;:

Authors: Liu L, Zhang H, Wu J, Yu Z, Chen X, Rekik I, Wang Q, Lu J, Shen D

Abstract
High-grade glioma (HGG) is a lethal cancer with poor outcome. Accurate preoperative overall survival (OS) time prediction for HGG patients is crucial for treatment planning. Traditional presurgical and noninvasive OS prediction studies have used radiomics features at the local lesion area based on the magnetic resonance images (MRI). However, the highly complex lesion MRI appearance may have large individual variability, which could impede accurate individualized OS prediction. In this paper, we propose a novel concept, namely brain connectomics-based OS prediction. It is based on presurgical resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and the non-local, large-scale brain functional networks where the global and systemic prognostic features rather than the local lesion appearance are used to predict OS. We propose that the connectomics features could capture tumor-induced network-level alterations that are associated with prognosis. We construct both low-order (by means of sparse representation with regional rs-fMRI signals) and high-order functional connectivity (FC) networks (characterizing more complex multi-regional relationship by synchronized dynamics FC time courses). Then, we conduct a graph-theoretic analysis on both networks for a jointly, machine-learning-based individualized OS prediction. Based on a preliminary dataset (N = 34 with bad OS, mean OS, ~400 days; N = 34 with good OS, mean OS, ~1030 days), we achieve a promising OS prediction accuracy (86.8%) on separating the individuals with bad OS from those with good OS. However, if using only conventionally derived descriptive features (e.g., age and tumor characteristics), the accuracy is low (63.2%). Our study highlights the importance of the rs-fMRI and brain functional connectomics for treatment planning.

PMID: 30155788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Abnormal Spontaneous Brain Activity in Early Parkinson's Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

Thu, 08/30/2018 - 12:00
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Abnormal Spontaneous Brain Activity in Early Parkinson's Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

Front Physiol. 2018;9:1093

Authors: Wang Z, Jia X, Chen H, Feng T, Wang H

Abstract
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common symptom at the baseline of early Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis, but the neural mechanism is unclear. To address the issue, the present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 19 drug-naïve PD patients with normal cognition (PD-NC), 10 PD patients with MCI (PD-MCI) and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) from the Parkinson's progression markers initiative (PPMI) (http://www.ppmi-info.org/), and examined abnormal spontaneous brain activities in the PD-MCI. The pattern of spontaneous brain activity was measured by examining the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of blood oxygen level dependent signal. Voxel-wise one-way analysis of covariance and post hoc analyses of ALFF were performed under non-parametric permutation tests in a general linear model among the three groups, with age, gender and data center as additional covariates. Statistical significances in the post hoc analysis were corrected by a small volume correction with a cluster-level threshold of p < 0.05 (n = 10000 permutations, FWE-corrected). Correlations of clinical and neuropsychological assessments [i.e., Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total score, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and cognitive domains] with the regional ALFF were performed in the PD-MCI group. Compared with the HC, both PD groups exhibited reduced ALFF in the occipital area (Calcarine_R/Cuneus_R). Specially, the PD-MCI group additionally exhibited increased ALFF in the opercular part of right inferior frontal gyrus (Frontal_Inf_Oper_R). Comparing with the PD-NC, the PD-MCI group exhibited significantly higher ALFF in the Frontal_Inf_Oper_R and left fusiform gyus (ps < 0.05). The correlation analysis revealed that the ALFF in the Frontal_Inf_Oper_R was positively correlated with the UPDRS total score (p < 0.05), but marginally negatively correlated with the MoCA score. For cognitive domains, the ALFF in the region also showed a significantly negative correlation with the score of SF test (p < 0.01) and a marginally negative correlation with the score of Symbol-Digit Modalities Test. Together, we concluded hyperactivity in the right inferior frontal gyrus in early PD with MCI, suggesting a compensatory recruitment in response to cognitive decline, which may shed light on thought of dementia progression and potentially comprehensive treatment in PD.

PMID: 30154730 [PubMed]

Unaltered intrinsic functional brain architecture in young women with primary dysmenorrhea.

Thu, 08/30/2018 - 12:00
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Unaltered intrinsic functional brain architecture in young women with primary dysmenorrhea.

Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 28;8(1):12971

Authors: Lee LC, Chen YH, Lin CS, Li WC, Low I, Tu CH, Chou CC, Cheng CM, Yeh TC, Chen LF, Chao HT, Hsieh JC

Abstract
Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), painful menstruation without organic causes, is the most prevalent gynecological problem in women of reproductive age. Dysmenorrhea later in life often co-occurs with many chronic functional pain disorders, and chronic functional pain disorders exhibit altered large-scale connectedness between distributed brain regions. It is unknown whether the young PDM females exhibit alterations in the global and local connectivity properties of brain functional networks. Fifty-seven otherwise healthy young PDM females and 62 age- and education-matched control females participated in the present resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. We used graph theoretical network analysis to investigate the global and regional network metrics and modular structure of the resting-state brain functional networks in young PDM females. The functional network was constructed by the interregional functional connectivity among parcellated brain regions. The global and regional network metrics and modular structure of the resting-state brain functional networks were not altered in young PDM females at our detection threshold (medium to large effect size differences [Cohen's d ≥ 0.52]). It is plausible that the absence of significant changes in the intrinsic functional brain architecture allows young PDM females to maintain normal psychosocial outcomes during the pain-free follicular phase.

PMID: 30154419 [PubMed - in process]

Different Developmental Pattern of Brain Activities in ADHD: A Study of Resting-State fMRI.

Wed, 08/29/2018 - 11:00

Different Developmental Pattern of Brain Activities in ADHD: A Study of Resting-State fMRI.

Dev Neurosci. 2018 Jul 13;:1-12

Authors: Tang C, Wei Y, Zhao J, Nie J

Abstract
There are distinct symptoms for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at different ages. To explore the developmental mechanism of ADHD from childhood to adolescence, patients from different age groups with ADHD drawn from a large dataset should be investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that there are significant differences in the developmental patterns of local and global brain activities between ADHD and typically developing (TD) individuals. Three voxel-based measurements and the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain networks were extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of both ADHD and TD participants 7-16 years of age. The topological properties of brain networks in both groups were also analyzed, including hubs, hemispheric symmetry, together with local and global efficiency. The results showed, from the local perspective, that the ADHD group had abnormal amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, and regional homogeneity in the medial orbital frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, postcentral gyrus, thalamus, precuneus, and cerebellum compared with the TD group. From the global perspective, the aberrant FC between multiple networks, such as the default mode network (DMN), the attention network, and the executive control network, might directly contribute to symptom differences in childhood and adolescence in ADHD patients. Finally, from the developmental perspective, there was delayed maturation of brain networks in the ADHD group, especially in the DMN. Overall, we presented the differences in brain networks between the ADHD and TD group from multiple perspectives and demonstrated the developmental abnormality of brain networks in ADHD patients, contributing to the study of the etiology of ADHD.

PMID: 30153660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effects of perinatal blood pressure on maternal brain functional connectivity.

Wed, 08/29/2018 - 11:00

Effects of perinatal blood pressure on maternal brain functional connectivity.

PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0203067

Authors: Kurosaki H, Nakahata K, Donishi T, Shiro M, Ino K, Terada M, Kawamata T, Kaneoke Y

Abstract
Perinatal hypertensive disorder including pre-eclampsia is a systemic syndrome that occurs in 3-5% of pregnant women. It can result in various degrees of brain damage. A recent study suggested that even gestational hypertension without proteinuria can cause cardiovascular or cognitive impairments later in life. We hypothesized that perinatal hypertension affects the brain functional connectivity (FC) regardless of the clinical manifestation of brain functional impairment. In the present study, we analyzed regional global connectivity (rGC) strength (mean cross-correlation coefficient between a brain region and all other regions) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to clarify brain FC changes associated with perinatal blood pressure using data from 16 women with a normal pregnancy and 21 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. The rGC values in the bilateral orbitofrontal gyri were negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure (dBP), which could not be explained by other pre-eclampsia symptoms. The strength of FC seeding at the left orbitofrontal gyrus was negatively correlated with dBP in the anterior cingulate gyri and right middle frontal gyrus. These results suggest that dBP elevation during pregnancy can affect the brain FC. Since FC is known to be associated with various brain functions and diseases, our findings are important for elucidating the neural correlate of cognitive impairments related to hypertension in pregnancy.

PMID: 30153298 [PubMed - in process]

From Default Mode Network to the Basal Configuration: Sex Differences in the Resting-State Brain Connectivity as a Function of Age and Their Clinical Correlates.

Wed, 08/29/2018 - 11:00
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From Default Mode Network to the Basal Configuration: Sex Differences in the Resting-State Brain Connectivity as a Function of Age and Their Clinical Correlates.

Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:365

Authors: Conrin SD, Zhan L, Morrissey ZD, Xing M, Forbes A, Maki P, Milad MR, Ajilore O, Langenecker SA, Leow AD

Abstract
Connectomics is a framework that models brain structure and function interconnectivity as a network, rather than narrowly focusing on select regions-of-interest. MRI-derived connectomes can be structural, usually based on diffusion-weighted MR imaging, or functional, usually formed by examining fMRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal correlations. Recently, we developed a novel method for assessing the hierarchical modularity of functional brain networks-the probability associated community estimation (PACE). PACE uniquely permits a dual formulation, thus yielding equivalent connectome modular structure regardless of whether positive or negative edges are considered. This method was rigorously validated using the 1,000 functional connectomes project data set (F1000, RRID:SCR_005361) (1) and the Human Connectome Project (HCP, RRID:SCR_006942) (2, 3) and we reported novel sex differences in resting-state connectivity not previously reported. (4) This study further examines sex differences in regard to hierarchical modularity as a function of age and clinical correlates, with findings supporting a basal configuration framework as a more nuanced and dynamic way of conceptualizing the resting-state connectome that is modulated by both age and sex. Our results showed that differences in connectivity between men and women in the 22-25 age range were not significantly different. However, these same non-significant differences attained significance in both the 26-30 age group (p = 0.003) and the 31-35 age group (p < 0.001). At the most global level, areas of diverging sex difference include parts of the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus, inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate, and precuneus. Further, we identified statistically different self-reported summary scores of inattention, hyperactivity, and anxiety problems between men and women. These self-reports additionally divergently interact with age and the basal configuration between sexes.

PMID: 30150944 [PubMed]

Aberrant Prefrontal-Thalamic-Cerebellar Circuit in Schizophrenia and Depression: Evidence From a Possible Causal Connectivity.

Wed, 08/29/2018 - 11:00
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Aberrant Prefrontal-Thalamic-Cerebellar Circuit in Schizophrenia and Depression: Evidence From a Possible Causal Connectivity.

Int J Neural Syst. 2018 Jul 16;:1850032

Authors: Jiang Y, Duan M, Chen X, Zhang X, Gong J, Dong D, Li H, Yi Q, Wang S, Wang J, Luo C, Yao D

Abstract
Neuroimaging studies have suggested the presence of abnormalities in the prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuit in schizophrenia (SCH) and depression (DEP). However, the common and distinct structural and causal connectivity abnormalities in this circuit between the two disorders are still unclear. In the current study, structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from 20 patients with SCH, 20 depressive patients and 20 healthy controls (HC). Voxel-based morphometry analysis was first used to assess gray matter volume (GMV). Granger causality analysis, seeded at regions with altered GMVs, was subsequently conducted. To discover the differences between the groups, ANCOVA and post hoc tests were performed. Then, the relationships between the structural changes, causal connectivity and clinical variables were investigated. Finally, a leave-one-out resampling method was implemented to test the consistency. Statistical analyses showed the GMV and causal connectivity changes in the prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuit. Compared with HC, both SCH and DEP exhibited decreased GMV in middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and a lower GMV in MFG and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in SCH than DEP. Compared with HC, both patient groups showed increased causal flow from the right cerebellum to the MPFC (common causal connectivity abnormalities). And distinct causal connectivity abnormalities (increased causal connectivity from the left thalamus to the MPFC in SCH than HC and DEP, and increased causal connectivity from the right cerebellum to the left thalamus in DEP than HC and SCH). In addition, the structural deficits in the MPFC and its causal connectivity from the cerebellum were associated with the negative symptom severity in SCH. This study found common/distinct structural deficits and aberrant causal connectivity patterns in the prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuit in SCH and DEP, which may provide a potential direction for understanding the convergent and divergent psychiatric pathological mechanisms between SCH and DEP. Furthermore, concomitant structural and causal connectivity deficits in the MPFC may jointly contribute to the negative symptoms of SCH.

PMID: 30149746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

APOE Genotype Effects on Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Wed, 08/29/2018 - 11:00
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APOE Genotype Effects on Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Sci Rep. 2017 03 24;7(1):397

Authors: Wang Z, Dai Z, Shu H, Liao X, Yue C, Liu D, Guo Q, He Y, Zhang Z

Abstract
Whether and how the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype specifically modulates brain network connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) remain largely unknown. Here, we employed resting-state ('task-free') functional MRI and network centrality approaches to investigate local (degree centrality, DC) and global (eigenvector centrality, EC) functional integrity in the whole-brain connectome in 156 older adults, including 66 aMCI patients (27 ε4-carriers and 39 non-carriers) and 90 healthy controls (45 ε4-carriers and 45 non-carriers). We observed diagnosis-by-genotype interactions on DC in the left superior/middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and cerebellum, with higher values in the ε4-carriers than non-carriers in the aMCI group. We further observed diagnosis-by-genotype interactions on EC, with higher values in the right middle temporal gyrus but lower values in the medial parts of default-mode network in the ε4-carriers than non-carriers in the aMCI group. Notably, these genotype differences in DC or EC were absent in the control group. Finally, the network connectivity DC values were negatively correlated with cognitive performance in the aMCI ε4-carriers. Our findings suggest that the APOE genotype selectively modulates the functional integration of brain networks in patients with aMCI, thus providing important insight into the gene-connectome interaction in this disease.

PMID: 28341847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Posterior cingulate cross-hemispheric functional connectivity predicts the level of consciousness in traumatic brain injury.

Wed, 08/29/2018 - 11:00
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Posterior cingulate cross-hemispheric functional connectivity predicts the level of consciousness in traumatic brain injury.

Sci Rep. 2017 03 24;7(1):387

Authors: Zhang H, Dai R, Qin P, Tang W, Hu J, Weng X, Wu X, Mao Y, Wu X, Northoff G

Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that altered states of consciousness are related to changes in resting state activity in the default-mode network (DMN). Anatomically, the DMN can be divided into anterior and posterior regions. The anterior DMN includes the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and other medial prefrontal cortical regions, whereas the posterior DMN includes regions such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the temporal parietal junction (TPJ). Although differential roles have been attributed to the anterior and posterior DMN regions, their exact contributions to consciousness levels remain unclear. To investigate the specific role of the posterior DMN in consciousness levels, we investigated 20 healthy controls (7 females, mean age = 33.6 years old) and 20 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients (5 females, mean age = 43 years old) whose brain lesions were mainly restricted to the bilateral frontal cortex but retained a well-preserved posterior DMN (e.g., the PCC and the TPJ) and who exhibited varying levels of consciousness. We investigated the intra- and cross-functional connectivity strengths (FCSs) between the right/left PCC and the right/left TPJ and their correlation with consciousness levels. Significant reductions in both the intra- and cross-hemispheric FCSs were observed in patients compared with controls. A significant correlation with consciousness levels was observed only for the cross-hemispheric PCC-TPJ FCS but not for the intra-hemispheric PCC-TPJ FCS. Taken together, our results show that the cross-hemispheric posterior DMN is related to consciousness levels in a specific group of patients without posterior structural lesions. We therefore propose that the PCC may be central in maintaining consciousness through its cross-hemispheric FC with the TPJ.

PMID: 28341824 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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