New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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Understanding the Brain, By Default.

Mon, 04/30/2018 - 17:20
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Understanding the Brain, By Default.

Trends Neurosci. 2018 May;41(5):244-247

Authors: Shine JM, Breakspear M

Abstract
In 2001 Raichle and colleagues showed that, at rest, brain activity fluctuates near a metabolically active equilibrium: a 'default mode' of brain function. This finding broke ranks with the prevailing 'task-rest' dichotomy to position the brain as continuously active, balancing the deployment of resources according to current and anticipated needs.

PMID: 29703375 [PubMed - in process]

Altered resting-state connectivity within default mode network associated with late chronotype.

Sat, 04/28/2018 - 15:20
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Altered resting-state connectivity within default mode network associated with late chronotype.

J Psychiatr Res. 2018 Apr 20;102:223-229

Authors: Horne CM, Norbury R

Abstract
Current evidence suggests late chronotype individuals have an increased risk of developing depression. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this association are not fully understood. Forty-six healthy, right-handed individuals free of current or previous diagnosis of depression, family history of depression or sleep disorder underwent resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rsFMRI). Using an Independent Component Analysis (ICA) approach, the Default Mode Network (DMN) was identified based on a well validated template. Linear effects of chronotype on DMN connectivity were tested for significance using non-parametric permutation tests (applying 5000 permutations). Sleep quality, age, gender, measures of mood and anxiety, time of scan and cortical grey matter volume were included as covariates in the regression model. A significant positive correlation between chronotype and functional connectivity within nodes of the DMN was observed, including; bilateral PCC and precuneus, such that later chronotype (participants with lower rMEQ scores) was associated with decreased connectivity within these regions. The current results appear consistent with altered DMN connectivity in depressed patients and weighted evidence towards reduced DMN connectivity in other at-risk populations which may, in part, explain the increased vulnerability for depression in late chronotype individuals. The effect may be driven by self-critical thoughts associated with late chronotype although future studies are needed to directly investigate this.

PMID: 29702432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Integration of temporal and spatial properties of dynamic connectivity networks for automatic diagnosis of brain disease.

Sat, 04/28/2018 - 15:20
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Integration of temporal and spatial properties of dynamic connectivity networks for automatic diagnosis of brain disease.

Med Image Anal. 2018 Apr 04;47:81-94

Authors: Jie B, Liu M, Shen D

Abstract
Functional connectivity networks (FCNs) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have been applied to the analysis and diagnosis of brain disease, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodrome, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Different from conventional studies focusing on static descriptions on functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions in rs-fMRI, recent studies have resorted to dynamic connectivity networks (DCNs) to characterize the dynamic changes of FC, since dynamic changes of FC may indicate changes in macroscopic neural activity patterns in cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, most of the existing studies only investigate the temporal properties of DCNs (e.g., temporal variability of FC between specific brain regions), ignoring the important spatial properties of the network (e.g., spatial variability of FC associated with a specific brain region). Also, emerging evidence on FCNs has suggested that, besides temporal variability, there is significant spatial variability of activity foci over time. Hence, integrating both temporal and spatial properties of DCNs can intuitively promote the performance of connectivity-network-based learning methods. In this paper, we first define a new measure to characterize the spatial variability of DCNs, and then propose a novel learning framework to integrate both temporal and spatial variabilities of DCNs for automatic brain disease diagnosis. Specifically, we first construct DCNs from the rs-fMRI time series at successive non-overlapping time windows. Then, we characterize the spatial variability of a specific brain region by computing the correlation of functional sequences (i.e., the changing profile of FC between a pair of brain regions within all time windows) associated with this region. Furthermore, we extract both temporal variabilities and spatial variabilities from DCNs as features, and integrate them for classification by using manifold regularized multi-task feature learning and multi-kernel learning techniques. Results on 149 subjects with baseline rs-fMRI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) suggest that our method can not only improve the classification performance in comparison with state-of-the-art methods, but also provide insights into the spatio-temporal interaction patterns of brain activity and their changes in brain disorders.

PMID: 29702414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effects of Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies on the Affective Network of Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder.

Fri, 04/27/2018 - 14:00
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Effects of Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies on the Affective Network of Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder.

J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Apr 26;:

Authors: Kang KD, Jung TW, Park IH, Han DH

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been suggested to be a mental health disorder. Attachment and emotional status in IGD patients are important for understanding the etiology and progression of IGD because both parameters are considered to be associated with the affective network. Equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) have been reported to improve emotional status and attachment in subjects. We hypothesized that EAAT would improve attachment in IGD adolescents with insecure attachment issues and increase functional connectivity (FC) within the affective network.
DESIGN: Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the Korean Experiences in Close Relationships Scale Revised version (K-ECRS), the Child Depression Inventory, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, the Korean Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline at the end of EAAT.
SUBJECTS: Fifteen IGD adolescents with insecure attachment issues and 15 healthy comparison adolescents with secure attachment agreed to participate in this study.
RESULTS: After 7 days of EAAT, K-ECRS avoidance and anxiety scores improved in all adolescents. K-ECRS avoidance scores of the IGD group showed marked improvement compared with those of the healthy group. In all participants, FC from the left amygdala to the left parahippocampal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and left inferior frontal gyrus, as well as from the right amygdala to the left caudate, right claustrum, and left inferior frontal gyrus increased. In IGD adolescents, FC from the left amygdala to the left frontal orbital gyrus, as well as from the right amygdala to the right corpus callosum also increased.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that EAAT improves attachment, which could lead to a decrease in the severity of IGD symptoms in IGD patients with insecure attachment issues. In addition, EAAT increases FC within the affective network, which was associated with attachment not only in healthy adolescents but also in adolescents with IGD.

PMID: 29698054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Chronic pain patients exhibit a complex relationship triad between pain, resilience, and within- and cross-network functional connectivity of the default mode network.

Fri, 04/27/2018 - 14:00
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Chronic pain patients exhibit a complex relationship triad between pain, resilience, and within- and cross-network functional connectivity of the default mode network.

Pain. 2018 Apr 23;:

Authors: Hemington KS, Rogachov A, Cheng JC, Bosma RL, Kim JA, Osborne NR, Inman RD, Davis KD

Abstract
Resilience is a psychological trait that strongly predicts chronic pain-related health outcomes. The neural correlates of both pain and trait resilience are critical to understanding the brain-behaviour relationship in chronic pain, yet neural correlates of resilience in chronic pain states are unknown. However, measures of pain perception and a wide range of psychological health measures have been linked to function of the default mode network (DMN). Thus, we aimed to determine the relationships between resilience, pain perception, and functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN and between the DMN and other brain networks. Resting state fMRI data was acquired from 51 chronic pain patients with a form of spondylarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis) and 51 healthy control participants. Participants completed a questionnaire on their individual trait resilience (the Resilience Scale), and patients reported their clinical pain. In healthy controls, we found within- DMN FC to be stronger in less resilient individuals. In chronic pain patients, individual resilience was negatively correlated with pain and disease activity. Cross-network FC between the DMN and the sensorimotor network (SMN) was abnormally high in patients with high clinical pain scores on the day of the study. Finally, there was an interaction between within-DMN FC and clinical pain report in patients: In patients reporting greater pain, the relationship between within-DMN connectivity and resilience was atypical. Thus, our findings reveal different neural representations of resilience and pain. The way in which these behavioural measures interact provides insight into understanding the neural correlates of chronic pain.

PMID: 29697536 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Effects on the regional homogeneity of resting-state brain function in the healthy subjects of gastric distention treated with acupuncture at the front-mu and back-shu points of the stomach, Weishu (BL 21) and Zhongwan (CV 12)].

Fri, 04/27/2018 - 14:00
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[Effects on the regional homogeneity of resting-state brain function in the healthy subjects of gastric distention treated with acupuncture at the front-mu and back-shu points of the stomach, Weishu (BL 21) and Zhongwan (CV 12)].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2018 Apr 12;38(4):379-86

Authors: Cai R, Guan Y, Wu H, Xu C, Li C, Hu L, Shen G

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To observe the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of resting-state brain function in the healthy subjects of gastric distention treated with acupuncture at the back-shu and front-mu points of the stomach, Weishu (BL 21) and Zhongwan (CV 12) and the correlation with gastric motility so as to explore the mechanism on the central integration of the front-mu and back-shu points of the stomach.
METHODS: The crossover test design was adopted. Twenty-four healthy subjects were assigned to a Weishu group, a Zhongwan group and a combined-point group separately, 8 cases in each one in each of the three times. Totally, 24 subjects were included in each group. Under the water load condition, the subjects received acupuncture at Weishu (BL 21), Zhongwan (CV 12) and the combined Weishu (BL 21) and Zhongwan (CV 12). Before and after each acupuncture, the resting-state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and electrogastrogram (EGG) test were applied. The ReHo value was calculated in the collected fMRI imaging data. The changes in ReHo values were analyzed and compared before and after acupuncture in each group, as well as among the groups. The gastric motility was analyzed before and after acupuncture. Additionally, the correlative analysis was conducted between the gastric motility and ReHo changes before and after acupuncture.
RESULTS: (1) After acupuncture, EGG amplitudes in the subjects of each group were lower remarkably as compared with those before acupuncture (all P<0.01). The EGG frequencies were not different significantly as compared with those before acupuncture (all P>0.05). The EGG amplitudes in the Weishu group and the Zhongwan group were higher than those in the combined-point group (both P<0.05). (2) As compared with the conditions before acupuncture, acupuncture at the combined front-mu and the back-shu points as well as Weishu (BL 21) and Zhongwan (CV 12) separately all induced the changes in the brain ReHo. Acupuncture at the combined front-mu and the back-shu points significantly increased Reho values in the right inferior temporal gyrus, the left thalamus, the precuneus and the posterior cingulate gyrus (all P<0.05) and remarkably reduced the ReHo values in the the middle temporal gyrus of the right temporal pole, sulcus calcarinus and precuneus (all P<0.05). Compared with the single point groups, acupuncture at the combined front-mu and the back-shu points induced the increase of ReHo value in the posterior cingulate gyrus and the decrease of ReHo in the temporal pole (all P<0.05). (3) The correlative analysis showed that the changes in the ReHo values in the posterior cingulate gyrus, the thalamus and the precuneus were positively correlated to the changes of the gastric motility amplitudes. The changes in the ReHo values in the temporal pole was negatively correlated to the changes of the gastric motility amplitudes.
CONCLUSION: Acupuncture at the combined back-shu and front-mu points of the stomach, as well as acupuncture at single Weishu (BL 21) and Zhongwan (CV 12) induce the ReHo changes in the different brain regions. Acupuncture at the combined back-shu and front-mu points of the stomach may induce the ReHo changes in some new brain regions as compared with the acupuncture at the single point. The thalamus, the posterior cingulate gyrus and the precuneus may be the the important integrated brain regions for acupuncture at the back-shu and the front-mu points in regulating the gastric motility. The effects of acupuncture at the back-shu and the front-mu points for the regulation of the gastric motility are closely related to the thalamus, the limbic system and the default network of the brain regions.

PMID: 29696922 [PubMed - in process]

Effects and mechanism of the HECT study (hybrid exercise-cognitive trainings) in mild ischemic stroke with cognitive decline: fMRI for brain plasticity, biomarker and behavioral analysis.

Fri, 04/27/2018 - 14:00
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Effects and mechanism of the HECT study (hybrid exercise-cognitive trainings) in mild ischemic stroke with cognitive decline: fMRI for brain plasticity, biomarker and behavioral analysis.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2018 Mar;9:164-171

Authors: Yeh TT, Chang KC, Wu CY, Lee YY, Chen PY, Hung JW

Abstract
Purpose: Cognitive decline after stroke is highly associated with functional disability. Empirical evidence shows that exercise combined cognitive training may induce neuroplastic changes that modulate cognitive function. However, it is unclear whether hybridized exercise-cognitive training can facilitate cortical activity and physiological outcome measures and further influence on the cognitive function after stroke. This study will investigate the effects of two hybridized exercise-cognitive trainings on brain plasticity, physiological biomarkers and behavioral outcomes in stroke survivors with cognitive decline.
Methods and significance: This study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. A target sample size of 75 participants is needed to obtain a statistical power of 95% with a significance level of 5%. Stroke survivors with mild cognitive decline will be stratified by Mini-Mental State Examination scores and then randomized 1:1:1 to sequential exercise-cognitive training, dual-task exercise-cognitive training or control groups. All groups will undergo training 60 min/day, 3 days/week, for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the resting-state functional connectivity and neural activation in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes in functional magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary outcomes include physiological biomarkers, cognitive functions, physical function, daily functions and quality of life. This study may differentiate the effects of two hybridized trainings on cognitive function and health-related conditions and detect appropriate neurological and physiological indices to predict training effects. This study capitalizes on the groundwork for a non-pharmacological intervention of cognitive decline after stroke.

PMID: 29696239 [PubMed]

Altered Functional Connectivity of Insular Subregions in Alzheimer's Disease.

Fri, 04/27/2018 - 14:00
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Altered Functional Connectivity of Insular Subregions in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;10:107

Authors: Liu X, Chen X, Zheng W, Xia M, Han Y, Song H, Li K, He Y, Wang Z

Abstract
Recent researches have demonstrated that the insula is the crucial hub of the human brain networks and most vulnerable region of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the changes of functional connectivity of insular subregions in the AD patients. In this study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data including 32 AD patients and 38 healthy controls (HCs). By defining three subregions of insula, we mapped whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and identified several distinct RSFC patterns of the insular subregions: For positive connectivity, three cognitive-related RSFC patterns were identified within insula that suggest anterior-to-posterior functional subdivisions: (1) an dorsal anterior zone of the insula that exhibits RSFC with executive control network (ECN); (2) a ventral anterior zone of insula, exhibits functional connectivity with the salience network (SN); (3) a posterior zone along the insula exhibits functional connectivity with the sensorimotor network (SMN). In addition, we found significant negative connectivities between the each insular subregion and several special default mode network (DMN) regions. Compared with controls, the AD patients demonstrated distinct disruption of positive RSFCs in the different network (ECN and SMN), suggesting the impairment of the functional integrity. There were no differences of the positive RSFCs in the SN between the two groups. On the other hand, several DMN regions showed increased negative RSFCs to the sub-region of insula in the AD patients, indicating compensatory plasticity. Furthermore, these abnormal insular subregions RSFCs are closely correlated with cognitive performances in the AD patients. Our findings suggested that different insular subregions presented distinct RSFC patterns with various functional networks, which are differently affected in the AD patients.

PMID: 29695961 [PubMed]

Increased habenular connectivity in opioid users is associated with an α5 subunit nicotinic receptor genetic variant.

Fri, 04/27/2018 - 14:00
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Increased habenular connectivity in opioid users is associated with an α5 subunit nicotinic receptor genetic variant.

Am J Addict. 2017 Oct;26(7):751-759

Authors: Curtis K, Viswanath H, Velasquez KM, Molfese DL, Harding MJ, Aramayo E, Baldwin PR, Ambrosi E, Madan A, Patriquin M, Frueh BC, Fowler JC, Kosten TR, Nielsen DA, Salas R

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic disorder with relapse based on both desire for reinforcement (craving) and avoidance of withdrawal. The aversive aspect of dependence and relapse has been associated with a small brain structure called the habenula, which expresses large numbers of both opioid and nicotinic receptors. Additionally, opioid withdrawal symptoms can be induced in opioid-treated rodents by blocking not only opioid, but also nicotinic receptors. This receptor co-localization and cross-induction of withdrawal therefore might lead to genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor influencing development of human opioid dependence through its impact on the aversive components of opioid dependence.
METHODS: We studied habenular resting state functional connectivity with related brain structures, specifically the striatum. We compared abstinent psychiatric patients who use opioids (N = 51) to psychiatric patients who do not (N = 254) to identify an endophenotype of opioid use that focused on withdrawal avoidance and aversion rather than the more commonly examined craving aspects of relapse.
RESULTS: We found that habenula-striatal connectivity was stronger in opioid-using patients. Increased habenula-striatum connectivity was observed in opioid-using patients with the low risk rs16969968 GG genotype, but not in patients carrying the high risk AG or AA genotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: We propose that increased habenula-striatum functional connectivity may be modulated by the nicotinic receptor variant rs16969968 and may lead to increased opioid use.
SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Our data uncovered a promising brain target for development of novel anti-addiction therapies and may help the development of personalized therapies against opioid abuse. (Am J Addict 2017;26:751-759).

PMID: 28857330 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Altered resting-state functional activity in posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative meta-analysis.

Fri, 04/27/2018 - 14:00
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Altered resting-state functional activity in posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative meta-analysis.

Sci Rep. 2016 06 02;6:27131

Authors: Wang T, Liu J, Zhang J, Zhan W, Li L, Wu M, Huang H, Zhu H, Kemp GJ, Gong Q

Abstract
Many functional neuroimaging studies have reported differential patterns of spontaneous brain activity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not so far been quantitatively reviewed. The present study set out to determine consistent, specific regional brain activity alterations in PTSD, using the Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping technique to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of resting-state functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD that used either a non-trauma (NTC) or a trauma-exposed (TEC) comparison control group. Fifteen functional neuroimaging studies were included, comparing 286 PTSDs, 203 TECs and 155 NTCs. Compared with NTC, PTSD patients showed hyperactivity in the right anterior insula and bilateral cerebellum, and hypoactivity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); compared with TEC, PTSD showed hyperactivity in the ventral mPFC. The pooled meta-analysis showed hypoactivity in the posterior insula, superior temporal, and Heschl's gyrus in PTSD. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis (non-medicated subjects vs. NTC) identified abnormal activation in the prefrontal-limbic system. In meta-regression analyses, mean illness duration was positively associated with activity in the right cerebellum (PTSD vs. NTC), and illness severity was negatively associated with activity in the right lingual gyrus (PTSD vs. TEC).

PMID: 27251865 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Longitudinal structural and functional brain network alterations in a mouse model of neuropathic pain.

Thu, 04/26/2018 - 13:20

Longitudinal structural and functional brain network alterations in a mouse model of neuropathic pain.

Neuroscience. 2018 Apr 22;:

Authors: Bilbao A, Falfán-Melgoza C, Leixner S, Becker R, Singaravelu SK, Sack M, Sartorius A, Spanagel R, Weber-Fahr W

Abstract
Neuropathic pain affects multiple brain functions, including motivational processing. However, little is known about the structural and functional brain changes involved in the transition from an acute to a chronic pain state. Here we combined behavioral phenotyping of pain thresholds with multimodal neuroimaging to longitudinally monitor changes in brain metabolism, structure and connectivity using the spared nerve injury (SNI) mouse model of chronic neuropathic pain. We investigated stimulus-evoked pain responses prior to SNI surgery, and one and twelve weeks following surgery. A progressive development and potentiation of stimulus-evoked pain responses (cold and mechanical allodynia) were detected during the course of pain chronification. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated striking decreases in volume following pain induction in all brain sites assessed - an effect that reversed over time. Similarly, all global and local network changes that occurred following pain induction disappeared over time, with two notable exceptions: the nucleus accumbens, which played a more dominant role in the global network in a chronic pain state and the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, which showed lower connectivity. These changes in connectivity were accompanied by enhanced glutamate levels in the hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex. We suggest that hippocampal hyperexcitability may contribute to alterations in synaptic plasticity within the nucleus accumbens, and to pain chronification.

PMID: 29694917 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Invariant and heritable local cortical organization as revealed by fMRI.

Thu, 04/26/2018 - 13:20

Invariant and heritable local cortical organization as revealed by fMRI.

J Neurophysiol. 2018 Apr 25;:

Authors: Christova P, Georgopoulos AP

Abstract
Neural interactions in local cortical networks critically depend on the distance between interacting elements: the shorter the distance, the stronger the interactions. Here we quantified these interactions in six cortical areas of 854 individuals, including monozygotic and dizygotic twins, non-twin siblings, and nonrelated individuals. We found that the strength of zero-lag correlation between prewhitened, resting-state, BOLD fMRI time series decreased with distance as a power law. The rate of decrease, b, varied among individuals by ~1.9x, was highly correlated between hemispheres but differed among areas (by ~1.2x) in a systematic fashion, becoming progressively less steep from frontal to occipital areas. With respect to twin status, b was significantly correlated between monozygotic twins, less so between dizygotic twins or non-twin siblings, and not at all in nonrelated individuals. These results quantify the lawful, distance-related cortical interactions and demonstrate, for the first time, the heritability of their power law.

PMID: 29694282 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Bupropion Shows Different Effects on Brain Functional Connectivity in Patients With Internet-Based Gambling Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder.

Thu, 04/26/2018 - 13:20

Bupropion Shows Different Effects on Brain Functional Connectivity in Patients With Internet-Based Gambling Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder.

Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:130

Authors: Bae S, Hong JS, Kim SM, Han DH

Abstract
Introduction: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and gambling disorder (GD) share similar clinical characteristics but show different brain functional connectivity patterns. Bupropion is known to be effective for the treatment of patients with IGD and GD. We hypothesized that bupropion may be effective for the treatment of Internet-based gambling disorder (ibGD) and IGD and that the connections between the default mode network (DMN) and cognitive control network (CCN) would be different between ibGD and IGD patients after 12 weeks of bupropion treatment.
Methods: 16 patients with IGD, 15 patients with ibGD, and 15 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. At baseline and after 12 weeks of bupropion treatment, the clinical symptoms of patients with IGD or ibGD were assessed, and brain activity was evaluated using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Results: After the 12-week bupropion treatment, clinical symptoms, including the severity of IGD or GD, depressive symptoms, attention, and impulsivity improved in both groups. In the IGD group, the functional connectivity (FC) within the posterior DMN as well as the FC between the DMN and the CCN decreased following treatment. Moreover, the FC within the DMN in the IGD group was positively correlated with changes in Young Internet Addiction Scale scores after the bupropion treatment period. In the ibGD group, the FC within the posterior DMN decreased while the FC within the CCN increased after the bupropion treatment period. Moreover, the FC within the CCN in the ibGD group was significantly greater than that in the IGD group.
Conclusion: Bupropion was effective in improving clinical symptoms in patients with IGD and ibGD. However, there were differences in the pharmacodynamics between the two groups. After 12 weeks of bupropion treatment, the FC within the DMN as well as between the DMN and CCN decreased in patients with IGD, whereas the FC within the CCN increased in patients with ibGD.

PMID: 29692743 [PubMed]

Impulsive Internet Game Play Is Associated With Increased Functional Connectivity Between the Default Mode and Salience Networks in Depressed Patients With Short Allele of Serotonin Transporter Gene.

Thu, 04/26/2018 - 13:20

Impulsive Internet Game Play Is Associated With Increased Functional Connectivity Between the Default Mode and Salience Networks in Depressed Patients With Short Allele of Serotonin Transporter Gene.

Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:125

Authors: Hong JS, Kim SM, Bae S, Han DH

Abstract
Problematic Internet game play is often accompanied by major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression seems to be closely related to altered functional connectivity (FC) within (and between) the default mode network (DMN) and salience network. In addition, serotonergic neurotransmission may regulate the symptoms of depression, including impulsivity, potentially by modulating the DMN. We hypothesized that altered connectivity between the DMN and salience network could mediate an association between the 5HTTLPR genotype and impulsivity in patients with depression. A total of 54 participants with problematic Internet game play and MDD completed the research protocol. We genotyped for 5HTTLPR and assessed the DMN FC using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The severity of Internet game play, depressive symptoms, anxiety, attention and impulsivity, and behavioral inhibition and activation were assessed using the Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS), Beck Depressive Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Korean Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales (BIS-BAS), respectively. The SS allele was associated with increased FC within the DMN, including the middle prefrontal cortex (MPFC) to the posterior cingulate cortex, and within the salience network, including the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG) to the right rostral prefrontal cortex (RPFC), right anterior insular (AInsular) to right SMG, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to left RPFC, and left AInsular to right RPFC, and between the DMN and salience network, including the MPFC to the ACC. In addition, the FC from the MPFC to ACC positively correlated with the BIS and YIAS scores in the SS allele group. The SS allele of 5HTTLPR might modulate the FC within and between the DMN and salience network, which may ultimately be a risk factor for impulsive Internet game play in patients with MDD.

PMID: 29692741 [PubMed]

Social anxiety disorder exhibit impaired networks involved in self and theory of mind processing.

Thu, 04/26/2018 - 13:20
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Social anxiety disorder exhibit impaired networks involved in self and theory of mind processing.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2017 Aug 01;12(8):1284-1295

Authors: Cui Q, Vanman EJ, Long Z, Pang Y, Chen Y, Wang Y, Duan X, Chen H, Gong Q, Zhang W, Chen H

Abstract
Most previous studies regarding social anxiety disorder (SAD) have focused on the role of emotional dysfunction, while impairments in self- and theory of mind (ToM)-processing have relatively been neglected. This study utilised functional connectivity density (FCD), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and discriminant analyses to investigate impairments in self- and ToM-related networks in patients with SAD. Patients with SAD exhibited decreased long-range FCD in the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and decreased short-range FCD in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG)-key nodes involved in self- and ToM-processing, respectively. Decreased RSFC of the right rACC and STG with widespread frontal, temporal, posteromedial, sensorimotor, and somatosensory, regions was also observed in patients with SAD. Altered RSFC between the right rACC and bilateral superior frontal gyrus, between the right rACC and right middle frontal gyrus, and within the right STG itself provided the greatest contribution to individual diagnoses of SAD, with an accuracy of 84.5%. These results suggest that a lack of cognitive inhibition on emotional self-referential processing as well as impairments in social information integration may play critical roles in the pathomechanism of SAD and highlight the importance of recognising such features in the diagnosis and treatment of SAD.

PMID: 28398578 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Risk factors associated with cognitions for late-onset depression based on anterior and posterior default mode sub-networks.

Wed, 04/25/2018 - 18:40
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Risk factors associated with cognitions for late-onset depression based on anterior and posterior default mode sub-networks.

J Affect Disord. 2018 Apr 10;235:544-550

Authors: Liu R, Yue Y, Hou Z, Yuan Y, Wang Q

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Abnormal functional connectivity (FC) in the default mode network (DMN) plays an important role in late-onset depression (LOD) patients. In this study, the risk predictors of LOD based on anterior and posterior DMN are explored.
METHODS: A total of 27 LOD patients and 40 healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive assessments. Firstly, FCs within DMN sub-networks were determined by placing seeds in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Secondly, multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for LOD patients. Finally, correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between risk factors and the cognitive value.
RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression showed that the FCs between the vmPFC and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) (vmPFC-MTG_R), FCs between the vmPFC and left precuneus (PCu), and FCs between the PCC and left PCu (PCC-PCu_L) were the risk factors for LOD. Furthermore, FCs of the vmPFC-MTG_R and PCC-PCu_L correlated with processing speed (R = 0.35, P = 0.002; R = 0.32, P = 0.009), and FCs of the vmPFC-MTG_R correlated with semantic memory (R = 0.41, P = 0.001).
LIMITATIONS: The study was a cross-sectional study. The results may be potentially biased because of a small sample.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we confirmed that LOD patients mainly present cognitive deficits in processing speed and semantic memory. Moreover, our findings further suggested that FCs within DMN sub-networks associated with cognitions were risk factors, which may be used for the prediction of LOD.

PMID: 29689507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The relationship between interleukin-6 and functional connectivity in methamphetamine users.

Wed, 04/25/2018 - 18:40
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The relationship between interleukin-6 and functional connectivity in methamphetamine users.

Neurosci Lett. 2018 Apr 21;:

Authors: Kohno M, Loftis JM, Huckans M, Dennis LE, McCready H, Hoffman WF

Abstract
Methamphetamine (MA) causes an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in animal models and in humans. Resulting activation of microglia and neuro-inflammation could, via effects on reward networks, mediate behavioral characteristics of addiction. We examined the relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and corticolimbic and striatolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Thirty adults diagnosed with MA dependence and 20 control subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and gave a blood sample for determination of plasma IL-6 levels. Seed-based RSFC analyses were performed to examine the interactive effect of group and IL-6 on ventral striatal and prefrontal connectivity. Within the MA group, IL-6 levels were positively related to striatolimbic RSFC but negatively related to corticostriatal RSFC. Our findings with IL-6 support the idea that inflammation may at least partly mediate the link among MA use disorder, RSFC, and behavior, possibly via effects on mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems.

PMID: 29689344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Characterization of the spatial structure of local functional connectivity using multi-distance average correlation measures.

Wed, 04/25/2018 - 18:40
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Characterization of the spatial structure of local functional connectivity using multi-distance average correlation measures.

Brain Connect. 2018 Apr 24;:

Authors: Macia D, Pujol J, Blanco-Hinojo L, Martínez-Vilavella G, Martín-Santos R, Deus J

Abstract
There is ample evidence from basic research in neuroscience of the importance of local cortico-cortical networks. Millimetric resolution is achievable with current functional MRI (fMRI) scanners and sequences, and consequently a number of "local" activity similarity measures have been defined to describe patterns of segregation and integration at this spatial scale. We have introduced the use of Iso-Distant local Average Correlation (IDAC), easily defined as the average fMRI temporal correlation of a given voxel with other voxels placed at increasingly separated iso-distant intervals, to characterize the curve of local fMRI signal similarities. IDAC curves can be statistically compared using parametric multivariate statistics. Furthermore, by using RGB color-coding to display jointly IDAC values belonging to three different distance lags, IDAC curves can also be displayed as multi-distance IDAC maps. We applied IDAC analysis to a sample of 41 subjects scanned under two different conditions, a resting state and an auditory-visual continuous stimulation. Multi-distance IDAC mapping was able to discriminate between gross anatomo-functional cortical areas and, moreover, was sensitive to modulation between the two brain conditions in areas known to activate and de-activate during audio-visual tasks. Unlike previous fMRI local similarity measures already in use, our approach draws special attention to the continuous smooth pattern of local functional connectivity.

PMID: 29687732 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered structural and functional connectivity of the insula in functional dyspepsia.

Wed, 04/25/2018 - 18:40
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Altered structural and functional connectivity of the insula in functional dyspepsia.

Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018 Apr 23;:e13345

Authors: Liu P, Fan Y, Wei Y, Zeng F, Li R, Fei N, Qin W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common functional gastrointestinal disease. Neuroimaging studies have identified that insula is involved in the pathogenesis of FD. However, less is known about structural and functional connectivity of insula in FD.
METHODS: In this study, 67 FD patients and 46 healthy controls (HCs) underwent structural MRI, resting-state functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans, and clinical assessment. We used the 3 neuroimaging modalities to investigate structural and functional connectivity of insula between FD patients and HCs, and we examined relationships between the neuroimaging findings and clinical symptoms.
KEY RESULTS: Compared with HCs, (i) FD patients had decreased gray matter density in right insula according to voxel-based morphometry method, which region was targeted as region of interest for further analysis of structural and functional connectivity; (ii) FD patients had lower connection probability in right anterior insula with right thalamus, right internal capsule (IC), and right external capsule (EC); (iii) FD patients had decreased functional connectivity of the right anterior insula with right thalamus and right pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC); and (iv) FD patients had negative correlation between disease duration and the functional connectivity of right anterior insula with thalamus.
CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: The present findings reveal that alterations of structural and/or functional connectivity of right anterior insula with regions, including thalamus, IC, EC, and pACC, may be mainly implicated in abnormalities of visceral sensory processing and related affective responses in FD patients. Finally, this study could enhance understanding of the pathophysiology of FD.

PMID: 29687532 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state functional connectivity MRI analysis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus co-infected subjects. A pilot study.

Wed, 04/25/2018 - 18:40
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Resting-state functional connectivity MRI analysis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus co-infected subjects. A pilot study.

Eur J Radiol. 2018 May;102:220-227

Authors: Corgiolu S, Barberini L, Suri JS, Mandas A, Costaggiu D, Piano P, Zaccagna F, Lucatelli P, Balestrieri A, Saba L

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection's role on cognitive impairment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients is still debated and functional neuroimaging evaluation on this matter is lacking. To provide further insight about HCV's neuro-effects on HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), we performed a pilot resting state (RS) functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) study to find eventual functional connectivity alteration that could reflect HCV related cognitive performance degradation.
METHODS: Eighteen patients (8 HIV, 10 HIV + HCV), either impaired or not impaired, were assessed with RS fcMRI. A statistic model including cognitive testing results was elaborated during data processing to evaluate brain networks alteration related to actual cognitive status in patients.
RESULTS: Statistically significant different patterns of connectivity were found: HCV co-infection modified 17 ROIs' connectivity with 45 supra-threshold connections (p-FDR min 0.0022, max 0.0497). ROIs most involved were right pallidum, brainstem, vermian lobules 1-2 and right cerebellar lobule 10. Graph theory analysis did not demonstrate significant difference between networks, but HCV related modifications at ROI's local level were found, with particular involvement of ROIs of frontal lobe, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Increased fronto-striatal dysfunctions have been already reported as consequences of HCV infection and could reflect an additive effect. Cerebellar alterations are associated with HIV and HAND, but not with HCV infection, suggesting a synergic effect of HCV.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates RS fcMRI can help to understand the interactions between HIV and HCV co-infection, and our preliminary results suggest synergic effects of HCV in HIV-related brain functional modification.

PMID: 29685540 [PubMed - in process]

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