New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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Resting-state functional MRI studies on infant brains: A decade of gap-filling efforts.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 14:00
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Resting-state functional MRI studies on infant brains: A decade of gap-filling efforts.

Neuroimage. 2018 Jul 07;:

Authors: Zhang H, Shen D, Lin W

Abstract
Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is one of the most prevalent brain functional imaging modalities. Previous rs-fMRI studies have mainly focused on adults and elderly subjects. Recently, infant rs-fMRI studies have become an area of active research. After a decade of gap filling studies, many facets of the brain functional development from early infancy to toddler has been uncovered. However, infant rs-fMRI is still in its infancy. The image analysis tools for neonates and young infants can be quite different from those for adults. From data analysis to result interpretation, more questions and issues have been raised, and new hypotheses have been formed. With the anticipated availability of unprecedented high-resolution rs-fMRI and dedicated analysis pipelines from the Baby Connectome Project, it is important now to revisit previous findings and hypotheses, discuss and comment existing issues and problems, and make a "to-do-list" for the future studies. This review article aims to comprehensively review a decade of the findings, unveiling hidden jewels of the fields of developmental neuroscience and neuroimage computing. Emphases will be given to early infancy, particularly the first few years of life. In this review, an end-to-end summary, from infant rs-fMRI experimental design to data processing, and from the development of individual functional systems to large-scale brain functional networks, is provided. A comprehensive summary of the rs-fMRI findings in developmental patterns is highlighted. Furthermore, an extensive summary of the neurodevelopmental disorders and the effects of other hazardous factors is provided. Finally, future research trends focusing on emerging dynamic functional connectivity and state-of-the-art functional connectome analysis are summarized. In next decade, early infant rs-fMRI and developmental connectome study could be one of the shining research topics.

PMID: 29990581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Correction: Reduced Topological Efficiency in Cortical-Basal Ganglia Motor Network of Parkinson's Disease: A Resting State fMRI Study.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 14:00
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Correction: Reduced Topological Efficiency in Cortical-Basal Ganglia Motor Network of Parkinson's Disease: A Resting State fMRI Study.

PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200623

Authors: Wei L, Zhang J, Long Z, Wu GR, Hu X, Zhang Y, Wang J

Abstract
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108124.].

PMID: 29990373 [PubMed - in process]

Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Resting-State Brain Networks and Deep Learning.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 14:00
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Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Resting-State Brain Networks and Deep Learning.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform. 2017 Nov 23;:

Authors: Ju R, Hu C, Zhou P, Li Q

Abstract
Computerized healthcare has undergone rapid development thanks to the advances in medical imaging and machine learning technologies. Especially, recent progress on deep learning opens a new era for multimedia based clinical decision support. In this paper, we use deep learning with brain network and clinical relevant text information to make early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The clinical relevant text information includes age, gender and ApoE gene of the subject. The brain network is constructed by computing functional connectivity of brain regions using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) data. A targeted autoencoder network is built to distinguish normal aging from mild cognitive impairment, an early stage of AD. The proposed method reveals discriminative brain network features effectively and provides a reliable classifier for AD detection. Compared to traditional classifiers based on R-fMRI time series data, 31.21% improvement of the prediction accuracy on average is achieved by the proposed deep learning method, and standard deviation reduces by 51.23% on average that means our prediction model is more stable and reliable compared to traditional methods. Our work excavates deep learning's advantages of classifying high-dimensional multimedia data in medical services, and could help predict and prevent AD at an early stage.

PMID: 29989989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Distinct neural correlates of trait resilience within core neurocognitive networks in at-risk children and adolescents.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 14:00
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Distinct neural correlates of trait resilience within core neurocognitive networks in at-risk children and adolescents.

Neuroimage Clin. 2018;20:24-34

Authors: Iadipaolo AS, Marusak HA, Paulisin SM, Sala-Hamrick K, Crespo LM, Elrahal F, Peters C, Brown S, Rabinak CA

Abstract
Background: Most children who are exposed to threat-related adversity (e.g., violence, abuse, neglect) are resilient - that is, they show stable trajectories of healthy psychological development. Despite this, most research on neurodevelopmental changes following adversity has focused on the neural correlates of negative outcomes, such as psychopathology. The neural correlates of trait resilience in pediatric populations are unknown, and it is unclear whether they are distinct from those related to adversity exposure and the absence of negative outcomes (e.g., depressive symptomology).
Methods: This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study reports on a diverse sample of 55 children and adolescents (ages 6-17 years) recruited from a range of stressful environments (e.g., lower income, threat-related adversity exposure). Participants completed a multi-echo multi-band resting-state fMRI scan and self-report measures of trait resilience and emotion-related symptomology (e.g., depressive symptoms). Resting-state data were submitted to an independent component analysis (ICA) to identify core neurocognitive networks (salience and emotion network [SEN], default mode network [DMN], central executive network [CEN]). We tested for links among trait resilience and dynamic (i.e., time-varying) as well as conventional static (i.e., averaged across the entire session) resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of core neurocognitive networks.
Results: Youth with higher trait resilience spent a lower fraction of time in a particular dynamic rsFC state, characterized by heightened rsFC between the anterior DMN and right CEN. Within this state, trait resilience was associated with lower rsFC of the SEN with the right CEN and anterior DMN. There were no associations among trait resilience and conventional static rsFC. Importantly, although more resilient youth reported lower depressive symptoms, the effects of resilience on rsFC were independent of depressive symptoms and adversity exposure.
Conclusions: The present study is the first to report on the neural correlates of trait resilience in youth, and offers initial insight into potential adaptive patterns of brain organization in the context of environmental stressors. Understanding the neural dynamics underlying positive adaptation to early adversity will aid in the development of interventions that focus on strengthening resilience rather than mitigating already-present psychological problems.

PMID: 29988970 [PubMed - in process]

Abnormal degree centrality in chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 14:00
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Abnormal degree centrality in chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Neuroimage Clin. 2018;19:775-781

Authors: Hua K, Wang T, Li C, Li S, Ma X, Li C, Li M, Fu S, Yin Y, Wu Y, Liu M, Yu K, Fang J, Wang P, Jiang G

Abstract
Codeine-containing cough syrups (CCS) have become one of the most popular drugs of abuse in young population worldwide. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying CCS-dependence are yet ill-defined. Therefore, understanding the brain abnormalities in chronic users of CCS is crucial for developing effective interventions. The present study depicted the intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at the voxel level in chronic users of CCS. In addition, the degree centrality (DC) changes were correlated to the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) total score, dose, duration of CCS use, and the age at first use of cough syrups. The current study included 38 chronic CCS users and 34 matched control subjects. All patients were evaluated using the BIS-11. Next, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) datasets were acquired from these CCS users and controls. Whole-brain connectivity was analyzed using a graph theory approach: degree centrality (DC). CCS-dependent individuals exhibited low DC values in the left inferior parietal lobule and the left middle temporal gyrus, while high DC values were noted in the right pallidum and the right hippocampus (P < 0.01, AlphaSim corrected). Also, significant correlations were established between average DC value in the left inferior parietal lobule and attentional impulsivity scores and the age at first CCS use. The rs-fMRI study suggested that the abnormal intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks may provide an insight into the neural substrates of abnormalities in the cognitive control circuit, the reward circuit, and the learning and memory circuit in CCS-dependent individuals.

PMID: 29988765 [PubMed - in process]

Abnormal Regional Homogeneity and Functional Connectivity of Baseline Brain Activity in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Cirrhosis With and Without Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 14:00
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Abnormal Regional Homogeneity and Functional Connectivity of Baseline Brain Activity in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Cirrhosis With and Without Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2018;12:245

Authors: Sun Q, Fan W, Ye J, Han P

Abstract
Background and Aims: Abnormalities in neural activity have been reported in cirrhosis with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms in this disorder. We aimed to investigate the altered patterns of regional synchronization and functional connections in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBV-RC) patients with and without MHE using both regional homogeneity (ReHo) and region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) computational methods. Methods: Data of magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected from 30 HBV-RC patients with MHE, 32 HBV-RC patients without MHE (NMHE) and 64 well-matched controls. Several regions showing differences in ReHo after one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were defined as ROIs for FC analysis. Next, post hoc t-tests were applied to calculate the group differences in ReHo and FC (false discovery rate (FDR) correction, p < 0.05). Correlations between clinical variables and the altered ReHo and FC were then assessed in patient groups. Results: Across three groups, significant ReHo differences were found in nine ROI regions mainly within the visual network (VN), dorsal attention network (DAN), somatomotor network (SMN), fronto parietal control (FPC) network and thalamus. Compared with healthy controls (HC), the MHE group exhibited abnormal FC mainly between the right calcarine (CAL.R) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG.L)/right thalamus. The MHE patients showed increased FC between the MFG.L and CAL.R compared to NMHE patients. Disease duration of MHE patients was positively correlated with increased mean ReHo values in the right fusiform gyrus (FFG); psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) test scores were negatively correlated with increased FC between MFG.L and CAL.R and positively correlated with reduced FC between the CAL.R and THA.R. For NMHE patients, the mean ReHo values in the right frontal pole were positively correlated with disease duration and positively correlated with the PHES scores. Conclusion: Our results exhibited that the functional brain modifications in patients with and without MHE are characterized by compound alterations in local coherence and functional connections in the VN, SMN, DAN, FPC networks and thalamus by using a combination of ReHo and ROI-based FC analysis. These functional imaging changes are correlated with disease duration/PHES. This study helped us gain a better understanding of the features of brain network modifications in cirrhosis.

PMID: 29988437 [PubMed]

Resting state fMRI and Probabilistic DTI demonstrate that the Greatest Functional and Structural Connectivity in the Hand Motor Homunculus Occurs in the area of the Thumb.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 14:00
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Resting state fMRI and Probabilistic DTI demonstrate that the Greatest Functional and Structural Connectivity in the Hand Motor Homunculus Occurs in the area of the Thumb.

Brain Connect. 2018 Jul 10;:

Authors: Hamidian S, Vachha B, Jenabi M, Karimi S, Young RJ, Holodny AI, Peck KK

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The primary hand motor region is classically believed to be in the "hand knob" area in the precentral gyrus (PCG). However, hand motor task-based activation is often localized outside this area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural and functional connectivity driven by different seed locations corresponding to the little, index, and thumb in the PCG using probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) and resting state fMRI (rfMRI).
METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects had three ROIs placed the left PCG: lateral to the hand knob (thumb area), within the hand knob (index finger area), and medial to the hand knob (little finger area). Connectivity maps were generated using PDT and rfMRI. Individual and group level analyses were performed.
RESULT: Results show that the greatest hand motor connectivity between both hemispheres was obtained using the ROI positioned just lateral to the hand knob in the PCG (the thumb area). The number of connected voxels in the PCG between the two hemispheres was greatest in the lateral-most ROI (the thumb area): 279 compared to 13 for the medial-most ROI and 9 for and the central hand knob ROI. Similarly, the highest white matter connectivity between the two hemispheres resulted from the ROI placed in the lateral portion of PCG (p<0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: The maximal functional and structural connectivity of the hand motor area between hemispheres occurs in the thumb area, located laterally at the "hand knob". Thus, this location appears optimal for rfMRI and PDT seeding of the motor area.

PMID: 29987948 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Trait Emotional Empathy and Resting State Functional Connectivity in Default Mode, Salience, and Central Executive Networks.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 14:00
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Trait Emotional Empathy and Resting State Functional Connectivity in Default Mode, Salience, and Central Executive Networks.

Brain Sci. 2018 Jul 06;8(7):

Authors: Bilevicius E, Kolesar TA, Smith SD, Trapnell PD, Kornelsen J

Abstract
Emotional empathy is the ability to experience and/or share another person&rsquo;s emotional states and responses. Although some research has examined the neural correlates of emotional empathy, there has been little research investigating whether this component of empathy is related to the functional connectivity of resting state networks in the brain. In the current study, 32 participants answered a trait emotional empathy questionnaire in a session previous to their functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Results indicate that emotional empathy scores were correlated with different patterns of functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and left and right central executive networks. For example, within the DMN, emotional empathy scores positively correlated with connectivity in the premotor cortex. Within the SN, empathy scores were positively correlated with the fusiform gyrus and cuneus. These findings demonstrate that emotional empathy is associated with unique patterns of functional connectivity in four of the brain&rsquo;s resting state networks.

PMID: 29986390 [PubMed]

Disrupted topological organization of structural and functional brain connectomes in clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 14:00
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Disrupted topological organization of structural and functional brain connectomes in clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis.

Sci Rep. 2016 07 12;6:29383

Authors: Shu N, Duan Y, Xia M, Schoonheim MM, Huang J, Ren Z, Sun Z, Ye J, Dong H, Shi FD, Barkhof F, Li K, Liu Y

Abstract
The brain connectome of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been investigated by several previous studies; however, it is still unknown how the network changes in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), the earliest stage of MS, and how network alterations on a functional level relate to the structural level in MS disease. Here, we investigated the topological alterations of both the structural and functional connectomes in 41 CIS and 32 MS patients, compared to 35 healthy controls, by combining diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI with graph analysis approaches. We found that the structural connectome showed a deviation from the optimal pattern as early as the CIS stage, while the functional connectome only showed local changes in MS patients, not in CIS. When comparing two patient groups, the changes appear more severe in MS. Importantly, the disruptions of structural and functional connectomes in patients occurred in the same direction and locally correlated in sensorimotor component. Finally, the extent of structural network changes was correlated with several clinical variables in MS patients. Together, the results suggested early disruption of the structural brain connectome in CIS patients and provided a new perspective for investigating the relationship of the structural and functional alterations in MS.

PMID: 27403924 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Short- and long-range synergism disorders in lifelong premature ejaculation evaluated using the functional connectivity density and network property.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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Short- and long-range synergism disorders in lifelong premature ejaculation evaluated using the functional connectivity density and network property.

Neuroimage Clin. 2018;19:607-615

Authors: Lu J, Zhang X, Wang H, Qing Z, Han P, Li M, Xia J, Chen F, Yang B, Zhu B, Dai Y, Zhang B

Abstract
This study was aimed to investigate brain function connectivity in premature ejaculation (PE) patients using the functional connectivity density (FCD) and network property of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty PE patients (mean age: 27.95 ± 4.52 years) and 15 normal controls (mean age: 27.87 ± 3.78 years) with no self-reported history of neurologic or psychiatric disease were enrolled in this study. International Index of Erectile Function-5 and Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation-5 questionnaires and self-reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) were obtained from each participant for symptom assessment. Two-sample t-tests (intergroup comparison) were applied in the short-range FCD (SFCD) analysis, long-range FCD (LFCD) analysis, region of interest-based analysis, and network topological organization analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to correlate IELT with FCD or the network property. The patients with PE showed significantly decreased SFCD in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, left orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, fusiform, caudate, and thalamus (p < 0.05, AlphaSim-corrected). Notably, all these aforementioned brain areas are located in the dopamine pathway. In contrast, increased LFCD was observed in the left insula, Heschl's gyrus, putamen, bilateral precuneus, supplementary motor area, middle cingulate cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex in PE patients (p < 0.05, AlphaSim-corrected). In addition, the network topological analysis found reinforced network connectivity between several nodes. The degree of hub nodes increased in the patients with PE. IELT was positively correlated with SFCD and negatively correlated with LFCD or the degree of hub nodes (p < 0.05, Pearson correlation). In summary, our results are important for understanding the brain network in PE patients. The present findings indicate that PE patients have a significant synergism disorder across the region of dopamine pathway, which implied neuronal pathological changes might be related with the change of dopamine. The FCD and network property can serve as new disease severity biomarkers and therapeutic targets in PE.

PMID: 29984168 [PubMed - in process]

Information processing speed in multiple sclerosis: Relevance of default mode network dynamics.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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Information processing speed in multiple sclerosis: Relevance of default mode network dynamics.

Neuroimage Clin. 2018;19:507-515

Authors: van Geest Q, Douw L, van 't Klooster S, Leurs CE, Genova HM, Wylie GR, Steenwijk MD, Killestein J, Geurts JJG, Hulst HE

Abstract
Objective: To explore the added value of dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of the default mode network (DMN) during resting-state (RS), during an information processing speed (IPS) task, and the within-subject difference between these conditions, on top of conventional brain measures in explaining IPS in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS).
Methods: In 29 pwMS and 18 healthy controls, IPS was assessed with the Letter Digit Substitution Test and Stroop Card I and combined into an IPS-composite score. White matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and lesion volume were measured using 3 T MRI. WM integrity was assessed with diffusion tensor imaging. During RS and task-state fMRI (i.e. symbol digit modalities task, IPS), stationary functional connectivity (sFC; average connectivity over the entire time series) and dFC (variation in connectivity using a sliding window approach) of the DMN was calculated, as well as the difference between both conditions (i.e. task-state minus RS; ΔsFC-DMN and ΔdFC-DMN). Regression analysis was performed to determine the most important predictors for IPS.
Results: Compared to controls, pwMS performed worse on IPS-composite (p = 0.022), had lower GM volume (p < 0.05) and WM integrity (p < 0.001), but no alterations in sFC and dFC at the group level. In pwMS, 52% of variance in IPS-composite could be predicted by cortical volume (β = 0.49, p = 0.01) and ΔdFC-DMN (β = 0.52, p < 0.01). After adding dFC of the DMN to the model, the explained variance in IPS increased with 26% (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: On top of conventional brain measures, dFC from RS to task-state explains additional variance in IPS. This highlights the potential importance of the DMN to adapt upon cognitive demands to maintain intact IPS in pwMS.

PMID: 29984159 [PubMed - in process]

Association of acute depressive symptoms and functional connectivity of emotional processing regions following sport-related concussion.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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Association of acute depressive symptoms and functional connectivity of emotional processing regions following sport-related concussion.

Neuroimage Clin. 2018;19:434-442

Authors: McCuddy WT, España LY, Nelson LD, Birn RM, Mayer AR, Meier TB

Abstract
Acute mood disturbance following sport-related concussion is common and is known to adversely affect post-concussion symptoms and recovery. The physiological underpinnings of depressive symptoms following concussion, however, are relatively understudied. We hypothesized that functional connectivity of the emotional processing network would be altered in concussed athletes and associated with the severity of depressive symptoms following concussion. Forty-three concussed collegiate athletes were assessed at approximately one day (N = 34), one week (N = 34), and one month post-concussion (N = 30). Fifty-one healthy contact-sport athletes served as controls and completed a single visit. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms. Resting state fMRI data was collected on a 3 T scanner (TR = 2 s) and functional connectivity was calculated in a meta-analytically derived network of regions associated with emotional processing. Concussed athletes had elevated depressive symptoms across the first month post-concussion relative to control athletes, but showed partial recovery by one month relative to more acute visits (ps < 0.05). Concussed athletes had significantly different connectivity in regions associated with emotional processing at one month post-concussion relative to one day post-concussion (p = 0.002) and relative to controls (p = 0.003), with higher connectivity between default mode and attention regions being common across analyses. Additionally, depressive symptoms in concussed athletes at one day (p = 0.003) and one week post-concussion (p = 7 × 10-8) were inversely correlated with connectivity between attention (e.g., right anterior insula) and default mode regions (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex). Finally, the relationships with HAM-D scores were not driven by a general increase in somatic complaints captured by the HAM-D, but were strongly associated with mood-specific HAM-D items. These results suggest that connectivity of emotional processing regions is associated with acute mood disturbance following sport-related concussion. Increased connectivity between attention and default mode regions may reflect compensatory mechanisms.

PMID: 29984152 [PubMed - in process]

Neural Basis of Sensorimotor Plasticity in Speech Motor Adaptation.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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Neural Basis of Sensorimotor Plasticity in Speech Motor Adaptation.

Cereb Cortex. 2018 Jul 06;:

Authors: Darainy M, Vahdat S, Ostry DJ

Abstract
When we speak, we get correlated sensory feedback from speech sounds and from the muscles and soft tissues of the vocal tract. Here we dissociate the contributions of auditory and somatosensory feedback to identify brain networks that underlie the somatic contribution to speech motor learning. The technique uses a robotic device that selectively alters somatosensory inputs in combination with resting-state fMRI scans that reveal learning-related changes in functional connectivity. A partial correlation analysis is used to identify connectivity changes that are not explained by the time course of activity in any other learning-related areas. This analysis revealed changes related to behavioral improvements in movement and separately, to changes in auditory perception: Speech motor adaptation itself was associated with connectivity changes that were primarily in non-motor areas of brain, specifically, to a strengthening of connectivity between auditory and somatosensory cortex and between presupplementary motor area and the inferior parietal lobule. In contrast, connectively changes associated with alterations to auditory perception were restricted to speech motor areas, specifically, primary motor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus. Overall, our findings show that during adaptation, somatosensory inputs result in a broad range of changes in connectivity in areas associated with speech motor control and learning.

PMID: 29982495 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Neural circuitry changes associated with increasing self-efficacy in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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Neural circuitry changes associated with increasing self-efficacy in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

J Psychiatr Res. 2018 Jun 09;104:58-64

Authors: Titcombe-Parekh RF, Chen J, Rahman N, Kouri N, Qian M, Li M, Bryant RA, Marmar CR, Brown AD

Abstract
Cognitive models suggest that posttraumtic stress disorder (PTSD) is maintained, in part, as a result of an individual's maladaptive beliefs about one's ability to cope with current and future stress. These models are consistent with considerable findings showing a link between low levels of self-efficacy and PTSD. A growing body of work has demonstrated that perceptions of self-efficacy can be enhanced experimentally in healthy subjects and participants with PTSD, and increasing levels of self-efficacy improves performance on cognitive, affective, and problem-solving tasks. This study aimed to determine whether increasing perceptions of self-efficacy in participants with PTSD would be associated with changes in neural processing. Combat veterans (N = 34) with PTSD were randomized to either a high self-efficacy (HSE) induction, in which they were asked to recall memories associated with successful coping, or a control condition before undergoing resting state fMRI scanning. Two global network measures in four neural circuits were examined. Participants in the HSE condition showed greater right-lateralized path length and decreased right-lateralized connectivity in the emotional regulation and executive function circuit. In addition, area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) analyses found that average connectivity (.71) and path length (.70) moderately predicted HSE group membership. These findings provide further support for the importance of enhancing perceived control in PTSD, and doing so may engage neural targets that could guide the development of novel interventions.

PMID: 29982083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Aberrant functional connectivity between the thalamus and visual cortex is related to attentional impairment in schizophrenia.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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Aberrant functional connectivity between the thalamus and visual cortex is related to attentional impairment in schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2018 Jun 21;278:35-41

Authors: Yamamoto M, Kushima I, Suzuki R, Branko A, Kawano N, Inada T, Iidaka T, Ozaki N

Abstract
Resting-state (rs) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed dysfunctional thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between thalamocortical FC and cognitive impairment has not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized that aberrant thalamocortical FC is related to attention deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty-eight patients with schizophrenia and 38 matched healthy controls underwent rs-fMRI and task fMRI while performing a Flanker task. We observed decreased left thalamic activation in patients with schizophrenia using task fMRI to determine the thalamic seed. A seed-based analysis using this seed was performed in the whole brain to assess differences in thalamocortical FC between the groups. Significantly worse performance was observed in the patient group. The rs-fMRI analysis revealed significantly increased FC between the left thalamus seed and the occipital cortices/postcentral gyri in patients when compared to controls. In the patient group, significant positive correlations were observed between the degree of FC from the left thalamus to the bilateral occipital gyri, which correspond to the visual cortex, and the Flanker effect. No significant correlation was detected in the control group. These results indicate that aberrant FC between the left thalamus and the visual cortex is related to attention deficits in schizophrenia.

PMID: 29981940 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Real-time motion analytics during brain MRI improve data quality and reduce costs.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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Real-time motion analytics during brain MRI improve data quality and reduce costs.

Neuroimage. 2017 Nov 01;161:80-93

Authors: Dosenbach NUF, Koller JM, Earl EA, Miranda-Dominguez O, Klein RL, Van AN, Snyder AZ, Nagel BJ, Nigg JT, Nguyen AL, Wesevich V, Greene DJ, Fair DA

Abstract
Head motion systematically distorts clinical and research MRI data. Motion artifacts have biased findings from many structural and functional brain MRI studies. An effective way to remove motion artifacts is to exclude MRI data frames affected by head motion. However, such post-hoc frame censoring can lead to data loss rates of 50% or more in our pediatric patient cohorts. Hence, many scanner operators collect additional 'buffer data', an expensive practice that, by itself, does not guarantee sufficient high-quality MRI data for a given participant. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-setup, easy-to-use Framewise Integrated Real-time MRI Monitoring (FIRMM) software suite that provides scanner operators with head motion analytics in real-time, allowing them to scan each subject until the desired amount of low-movement data has been collected. Our analyses show that using FIRMM to identify the ideal scan time for each person can reduce total brain MRI scan times and associated costs by 50% or more.

PMID: 28803940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Resting state functional thalamic connectivity abnormalities in patients with post-stroke sleep apnoea: a pilot case-control study.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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Resting state functional thalamic connectivity abnormalities in patients with post-stroke sleep apnoea: a pilot case-control study.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Jun;21(11):2676-2689

Authors: Sacchetti ML, Di Mascio MT, Tinelli E, Mainero C, Russo G, Fiorelli M, Calistri V, de Lena C, Minni A, Caramia F

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Sleep apnoea is common after stroke, and has adverse effects on the clinical outcome of affected cases. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are only partially known. Increases in brain connectivity after stroke might influence networks involved in arousal modulation and breathing control. The aim of this study was to investigate the resting state functional MRI thalamic hyper-connectivity of stroke patients affected by sleep apnoea (SA) with respect to cases not affected, and to healthy controls (HC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of stabilized strokes were submitted to 3T resting state functional MRI imaging and full polysomnography. The ventral-posterior-lateral thalamic nucleus was used as seed.
RESULTS: At the between groups comparison analysis, in SA cases versus HC, the regions significantly hyper-connected with the seed were those encoding noxious threats (frontal eye field, somatosensory association, secondary visual cortices). Comparisons between SA cases versus those without SA revealed in the former group significantly increased connectivity with regions modulating the response to stimuli independently to their potentiality of threat (prefrontal, primary and somatosensory association, superolateral and medial-inferior temporal, associative and secondary occipital ones). Further significantly functionally hyper-connections were documented with regions involved also in the modulation of breathing during sleep (pons, midbrain, cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortices), and in the modulation of breathing response to chemical variations (anterior, posterior and para-hippocampal cingulate cortices).
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data support the presence of functional hyper connectivity in thalamic circuits modulating sensorial stimuli, in patients with post-stroke sleep apnoea, possibly influencing both their arousal ability and breathing modulation during sleep.

PMID: 28678316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neural correlates of increased risk-taking propensity in sleep-deprived people along with a changing risk level.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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Neural correlates of increased risk-taking propensity in sleep-deprived people along with a changing risk level.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2017 Dec;11(6):1910-1921

Authors: Lei Y, Wang L, Chen P, Li Y, Han W, Ge M, Yang L, Chen S, Hu W, Wu X, Yang Z

Abstract
Risky decision-making under a changing risk level is a complex process involving contextual information. The neural mechanism underlying how sleep deprivation (SD) influences risky decision-making behaviors with a changing risk level has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we used the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) during functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of SD-induced changes on decision-making behaviors at different risk levels. Thirty-seven healthy male adults were recruited in this within-subjects, repeat-measure, counterbalanced study. These individuals were examined during a state of rested wakefulness state and after nearly 36 h of total SD. The results showed that SD increased the activation of risk modulation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and were positively correlated with risk-taking propensity after SD. Activation in the ventral striatum and thalamus during cash out was increased, and activation in the middle temporal gyrus after explosion (loss of money) was decreased in sleep-deprived subjects, providing additional evidence for greater risk-taking propensity after SD. These results extend our understanding of the neural mechanism underlying alteration of the risk-taking propensity in sleep-deprived individuals.

PMID: 27975159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The short-term effect of liver transplantation on the low-frequency fluctuation of brain activity in cirrhotic patients with and without overt hepatic encephalopathy.

Tue, 07/10/2018 - 12:40
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The short-term effect of liver transplantation on the low-frequency fluctuation of brain activity in cirrhotic patients with and without overt hepatic encephalopathy.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2017 Dec;11(6):1849-1861

Authors: Zhang G, Cheng Y, Shen W, Liu B, Huang L, Xie S

Abstract
Previous neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that liver transplantation (LT) is an effective method for improving the cognitive function of cirrhotic patients. However, the neural basis underlying the effects of LT is still unclear. Neuroimaging studies investigating changes in brain structures or functional networks mainly focus on patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In this study, we recruited patients with and without overt HE and studied alterations in resting-state brain activity by quantizing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) before and 1 month after LT to study the short-term effect of LT in each group. Neuropsychological analyses indicated significant improvement of cognitive function in both groups. ALFF analysis showed that the brain activity in regions regulating motor function, vision, attention, and working memory were restored in both groups, reflecting the neuroplasticity of the brain. However, some persistent impairments and new-onset impairments in other regions related to these cognitive functions were observed in each group. Between-group comparison showed that although cognitive performance improved in both groups, the specific neural basis of LT in each group was different. The significant correlations of altered brain activity in regions showing LT and group effect with altered performance in neuropsychological and biochemical tests suggest a possible neuroimaging marker for the monitoring of short-term recovery of HE and the difference in individual recovery of cognitive performance. The findings in the present study help us further understand the neural effect of LT in patients with and without overt HE.

PMID: 27917450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Altered cerebellar-insular-parietal-cingular subnetwork in adolescents in the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa: a network-based statistic analysis.

Sun, 07/08/2018 - 10:40
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Altered cerebellar-insular-parietal-cingular subnetwork in adolescents in the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa: a network-based statistic analysis.

Transl Psychiatry. 2018 Jul 06;8(1):127

Authors: Gaudio S, Olivo G, Beomonte Zobel B, Schiöth HB

Abstract
To date, few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have explored resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in long-lasting anorexia nervosa (AN) patients via graph analysis. The aim of the present study is to investigate, via a graph approach (i.e., the network-based statistic), RSFC in a sample of adolescents at the earliest stages of AN (i.e., AN duration less than 6 months). Resting-state fMRI data was obtained from 15 treatment-naive female adolescents with AN restrictive type (AN-r) in its earliest stages and 15 age-matched healthy female controls. A network-based statistic analysis was used to isolate networks of interconnected nodes that differ between the two groups. Group comparison showed a decreased connectivity in a sub-network of connections encompassing the left and right rostral ACC, left paracentral lobule, left cerebellum (10th sub-division), left posterior insula, left medial fronto-orbital gyrus, and right superior occipital gyrus in AN patients. Results were not associated to alterations in intranodal or global connectivity. No sub-networks with an increased connectivity were identified in AN patients. Our findings suggest that RSFC may be specifically affected at the earliest stages of AN. Considering that the altered sub-network comprises areas mainly involved in somatosensory and interoceptive information and processing and in emotional processes, it could sustain abnormal integration of somatosensory and homeostatic signals, which may explain body image disturbances in AN. Further studies with larger samples and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm our findings and better understand the role and consequences of such functional alterations in AN.

PMID: 29980676 [PubMed - in process]

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