Stochastic resonance therapy induces increased movement related caudate nucleus activity.
J Rehabil Med. 2016 Sep 26;
Authors: Kaut O, Becker B, Schneider C, Zhou F, Fliessbach K, Hurlemann R, Wüllner U
OBJECTIVE: Whole-body vibration can be used to supplement canonical physical treatment. It is performed while probands stand on a vibrating platform. Therapeutic vibration can be generated as a stochastic vibratory pattern, referred to as stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV). Despite the widespread use of SR-WBV its neurophysiological mechanism is unclear.
DESIGN: A randomized sham-controlled double-blinded trial was performed as a pilot study. The experimental group received 6 cycles of SR-WBV at a frequency of 7 Hz with the SR-Zeptor device, and the sham group received the same treatment at a frequency of 1 Hz. At baseline 1.5 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in the resting state, together with a finger/foot tapping test. A second fMRI was carried out after SR-WBV as sham treatment in both groups. Subsequently, a second cycle of SR-WBV was performed as sham or verum with consecutive fMRI, followed by a final fMRI on day 2.
SUBJECTS: Nineteen healthy volunteers were allocated to the experimental or sham group, respectively.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Analyses of specific effects revealed a significant treatment × time interaction effect (p < 0.05, small-volume corrected (SVC FWE-corrected)) in the left caudate nucleus during intermediate difficulty when comparing pre- vs post-SR-WBV treatment in the verum group. This proof-of-concept study suggests the existence of cerebral effects of SR-WBV.
PMID: 27671247 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Altered functional connectivity of the marginal division in migraine: a resting-state fMRI study.
J Headache Pain. 2016 Dec;17(1):89
Authors: Chen Z, Chen X, Liu M, Liu S, Shu S, Ma L, Yu S
BACKGROUND: The marginal division of neostriatum (MrD) is a flat, pan-shaped zone between the neostriatum and the globus pallidus, and previous documents demonstrated that it was involved in the modulation of pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of the MrD of the human brain in the chronicization migraine using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).
METHODS: Conventional MRI, 3D structure images, and rs-fMRI were performed in 18 patients with episodic migraines (EM), 16 patients with chronic migraine (CM), 44 patients with medication overuse headache plus chronic migraine (MOH + CM), and 32 normal controls (NC). MrD was defined using manual delineation on structural images, and was selected as the seed to calculate the functional connectivity (FC).
RESULTS: Compared with the NC group, the decreased FC of MrD was observed in the EM and CM groups, and increased FC of MrD was demonstrated in all patient groups. Compared with the EM group, the decreased FC of MrD was revealed in the CM and MOH + CM groups, and the increased FC occurred only in the CM group. Increased FC of MrD alone was observed in the MOH + CM group compared with that in the CM group.
CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the double neuromodulation network of MrD in pain modulation and migraine chronicization; however, the mechanism requires further investigation.
PMID: 27670428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Altered corticostriatal functional connectivity in individuals with high social anhedonia.
Psychol Med. 2016 Jan;46(1):125-35
Authors: Wang Y, Liu WH, Li Z, Wei XH, Jiang XQ, Geng FL, Zou LQ, Lui SS, Cheung EF, Pantelis C, Chan RC
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of the striatum and altered corticostriatal connectivity have been associated with psychotic disorders. Social anhedonia has been identified as a predictor for the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine corticostriatal functional connectivity in individuals with high social anhedonia.
METHOD: Twenty-one participants with high social anhedonia score and 30 with low social anhedonia score measured by the Chinese version of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale were recruited from university undergraduates (age 17-21 years) to undergo resting-state functional MRI scans. Six subdivisions of the striatum in each hemisphere were defined as seeds. Voxel-wise functional connectivity analyses were conducted between each seed and the whole brain voxels, followed by repeated-measures ANOVA for the group effect.
RESULTS: Participants with high social anhedonia showed hyper-connectivity between the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula, and between the dorsal striatum and the motor cortex. Hypo-connectivity in participants with high social anhedonia was also observed between the ventral striatum and the posterior cingulate cortex. Partial correlation analyses further showed that the functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was associated with pleasure experience and emotional suppression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that altered corticostriatal connectivity can be found in participants with high levels of social anhedonia. Since social anhedonia has been considered a predictor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, our results may provide novel evidence on the early changes in brain functional connectivity in at-risk individuals.
PMID: 26315390 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]