New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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Fluid and flexible minds: Intelligence reflects synchrony in the brain's intrinsic network architecture.

Tue, 06/19/2018 - 15:20

Fluid and flexible minds: Intelligence reflects synchrony in the brain's intrinsic network architecture.

Netw Neurosci. 2017;1(2):192-207

Authors: Ferguson MA, Anderson JS, Spreng RN

Abstract
Human intelligence has been conceptualized as a complex system of dissociable cognitive processes, yet studies investigating the neural basis of intelligence have typically emphasized the contributions of discrete brain regions or, more recently, of specific networks of functionally connected regions. Here we take a broader, systems perspective in order to investigate whether intelligence is an emergent property of synchrony within the brain's intrinsic network architecture. Using a large sample of resting-state fMRI and cognitive data (n = 830), we report that the synchrony of functional interactions within and across distributed brain networks reliably predicts fluid and flexible intellectual functioning. By adopting a whole-brain, systems-level approach, we were able to reliably predict individual differences in human intelligence by characterizing features of the brain's intrinsic network architecture. These findings hold promise for the eventual development of neural markers to predict changes in intellectual function that are associated with neurodevelopment, normal aging, and brain disease.

PMID: 29911673 [PubMed]

Visibility graphs for fMRI data: Multiplex temporal graphs and their modulations across resting-state networks.

Tue, 06/19/2018 - 15:20

Visibility graphs for fMRI data: Multiplex temporal graphs and their modulations across resting-state networks.

Netw Neurosci. 2017 Oct 01;1(3):208-221

Authors: Sannino S, Stramaglia S, Lacasa L, Marinazzo D

Abstract
Visibility algorithms are a family of methods that map time series into graphs, such that the tools of graph theory and network science can be used for the characterization of time series. This approach has proved a convenient tool, and visibility graphs have found applications across several disciplines. Recently, an approach has been proposed to extend this framework to multivariate time series, allowing a novel way to describe collective dynamics. Here we test their application to fMRI time series, following two main motivations, namely that (a) this approach allows vs to simultaneously capture and process relevant aspects of both local and global dynamics in an easy and intuitive way, and (b) this provides a suggestive bridge between time series and network theory that nicely fits the consolidating field of network neuroscience. Our application to a large open dataset reveals differences in the similarities of temporal networks (and thus in correlated dynamics) across resting-state networks, and gives indications that some differences in brain activity connected to psychiatric disorders could be picked up by this approach.

PMID: 29911672 [PubMed]

From static to temporal network theory: Applications to functional brain connectivity.

Tue, 06/19/2018 - 15:20

From static to temporal network theory: Applications to functional brain connectivity.

Netw Neurosci. 2017;1(2):69-99

Authors: Thompson WH, Brantefors P, Fransson P

Abstract
Network neuroscience has become an established paradigm to tackle questions related to the functional and structural connectome of the brain. Recently, interest has been growing in examining the temporal dynamics of the brain's network activity. Although different approaches to capturing fluctuations in brain connectivity have been proposed, there have been few attempts to quantify these fluctuations using temporal network theory. This theory is an extension of network theory that has been successfully applied to the modeling of dynamic processes in economics, social sciences, and engineering article but it has not been adopted to a great extent within network neuroscience. The objective of this article is twofold: (i) to present a detailed description of the central tenets of temporal network theory and describe its measures, and; (ii) to apply these measures to a resting-state fMRI dataset to illustrate their utility. Furthermore, we discuss the interpretation of temporal network theory in the context of the dynamic functional brain connectome. All the temporal network measures and plotting functions described in this article are freely available as the Python package Teneto.

PMID: 29911669 [PubMed]

Neural correlates of executive functions in patients with obesity.

Tue, 06/19/2018 - 15:20
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Neural correlates of executive functions in patients with obesity.

PeerJ. 2018;6:e5002

Authors: Ho MC, Chen VC, Chao SH, Fang CT, Liu YC, Weng JC

Abstract
Obesity is one of the most challenging problems in human health and is recognized as an important risk factor for many chronic diseases. It remains unclear how the neural systems (e.g., the mesolimbic "reward" and the prefrontal "control" neural systems) are correlated with patients' executive function (EF), conceptualized as the integration of "cool" EF and "hot" EF. "Cool" EF refers to relatively abstract, non-affective operations such as inhibitory control and mental flexibility. "Hot" EF refers to motivationally significant affective operations such as affective decision-making. We tried to find the correlation between structural and functional neuroimaging indices and EF in obese patients. The study population comprised seventeen patients with obesity (seven males and 10 females, BMI = 37.99 ± 5.40, age = 31.82 ± 8.75 year-old) preparing to undergo bariatric surgery. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor imaging, generalized q-sampling imaging, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlations between structural and functional neuroimaging indices and EF performances in patients with obesity. We reported that many brain areas are correlated to the patients' EF performances. More interestingly, some correlations may implicate the possible associations of EF and the incentive motivational effects of food. The neural correlation between the left precuneus and middle occipital gyrus and inhibitory control may suggest that patients with a better ability to detect appetitive food may have worse inhibitory control. Also, the neural correlation between the superior frontal blade and affective decision-making may suggest that patients' affective decision-making may be associated with the incentive motivational effects of food. Our results provide evidence suggesting neural correlates of EF in patients with obesity.

PMID: 29910989 [PubMed]

More than just statics: temporal dynamics of intrinsic brain activity predicts the suicidal ideation in depressed patients.

Tue, 06/19/2018 - 15:20
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More than just statics: temporal dynamics of intrinsic brain activity predicts the suicidal ideation in depressed patients.

Psychol Med. 2018 Jun 18;:1-9

Authors: Li J, Duan X, Cui Q, Chen H, Liao W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with high risk of suicide. Conventional neuroimaging works showed abnormalities of static brain activity and connectivity in MDD with suicidal ideation (SI). However, little is known regarding alterations of brain dynamics. More broadly, it remains unclear whether temporal dynamics of the brain activity could predict the prognosis of SI.
METHODS: We included MDD patients (n = 48) with and without SI and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 30) who underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We first assessed dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (dALFF) - a proxy for intrinsic brain activity (iBA) - using sliding-window analysis. Furthermore, the temporal variability (dynamics) of iBA was quantified as the variance of dALFF over time. In addition, the prediction of the severity of SI from temporal variability was conducted using a general linear model.
RESULTS: Compared with MDD without SI, the SI group showed decreased brain dynamics (less temporal variability) in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the left orbital frontal cortex, the left inferior temporal gyrus, and the left hippocampus. Importantly, these temporal variabilities could be used to predict the severity of SI (r = 0.43, p = 0.03), whereas static ALFF could not in the current data set.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that alterations of temporal variability in regions involved in executive and emotional processing are associated with SI in MDD patients. This novel predictive model using the dynamics of iBA could be useful in developing neuromarkers for clinical applications.

PMID: 29909788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered Functional Connectivity in Sickle Cell Disease Exists at Rest and During Acute Pain Challenge.

Tue, 06/19/2018 - 15:20
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Altered Functional Connectivity in Sickle Cell Disease Exists at Rest and During Acute Pain Challenge.

Clin J Pain. 2017 Dec;33(12):1060-1070

Authors: Zempsky WT, Stevens MC, Santanelli JP, Gaynor AM, Khadka S

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic pain disorder in which abnormally shaped red blood cells obstruct microcirculation causing ischemia and pain. The lack of SCD responsiveness to analgesics has led many to propose that nociceptive neural systems engaged when detecting pain become sensitized, resulting in an enhancement of pain response.
METHODS: Individuals with SCD and non-SCD controls were exposed to a painful stimuli of varying intensity using a pressure algometer and underwent several neuroimaging tasks.
RESULTS: This study identified and characterized the neural correlates of possible central sensitization in SCD. We found functional connectivity abnormalities in individuals with SCD in the brain's somatosensory network, salience network, and default mode network during both an unstructured resting state and paradigm involving acute pain challenge.
DISCUSSION: There was evidence for both increased and decreased connectivity which is consistent with findings in other chronic pain disorders. Preliminary evidence was found that subcortical brain regions might contribute to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in chronic pain. The results support a model in which SCD pain sensitization involves abnormally low functional integration of brain regions that make use of nociceptive information to plan movements, and hyperconnectivity of various frontal and parietal lobe regions that direct attention to or represent higher-order abstractions within circuits involved with either nocioceptive processing or detection of abnormally salient environmental stimuli.

PMID: 28272117 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Intrinsic functional neurocircuitry associated with treatment response to transdiagnostic CBT in bipolar disorder with anxiety.

Mon, 06/18/2018 - 14:20
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Intrinsic functional neurocircuitry associated with treatment response to transdiagnostic CBT in bipolar disorder with anxiety.

J Affect Disord. 2018 Jun 02;238:383-391

Authors: Ellard KK, Gosai AG, Bernstein EE, Kaur N, Sylvia LG, Camprodon JA, Dougherty DD, Nierenberg AA, Deckersbach T

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Anxiety in bipolar disorder (BD) exacerbates emotion dysregulation and reduces treatment response. We recently conducted a pilot trial of transdiagnostic CBT to target anxiety and emotion dysregulation in BD adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. Reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms were significantly predicted by baseline levels of neuroticism and perceived affective control, as well as changes over time in emotion regulation skills. The present study investigates mechanism of treatment response by examining the relationship between baseline emotion regulation-related neural circuitry and trial outcomes.
METHODS: Nineteen patients completed baseline resting state fMRI scans prior to treatment randomization. Functional connectivity between the anterior insula (AI) and regions in the salience network (SN), default mode network (DMN), and executive control network (ECN) were examined as predictors of baseline and treatment-related changes in emotion regulation.
RESULTS: Greater improvements in emotion regulation were predicted by weaker right dorsal AI - right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC; SN) and stronger bilateral dorsal AI - bilateral amygdala functional connectivity. Baseline neuroticism was negatively correlated with right dorsal AI- inferior parietal lobule (ECN) functional connectivity, and baseline deficits in perceived affective control were positively associated with ventral AI - bilateral dACC (SN) connectivity.
LIMITATIONS: Small sample limits interpretability of treatment-specific effects.
CONCLUSION: Baseline functional connectivity of emotion-regulation related neural circuitry significantly predicted change in emotion regulation-related dimensions associated with anxiety and depression symptom reduction. Future studies are needed to determine if employing methods such as neuromodulation to rehabilitate relevant neural circuitry may improve ultimate treatment outcomes of transdiagnostic CBT for BD and anxiety.

PMID: 29909301 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Age-related differences in striatal, medial temporal, and frontal involvement during value-based decision processing.

Mon, 06/18/2018 - 14:20
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Age-related differences in striatal, medial temporal, and frontal involvement during value-based decision processing.

Neurobiol Aging. 2018 May 21;69:185-198

Authors: Su YS, Chen JT, Tang YJ, Yuan SY, McCarrey AC, Goh JOS

Abstract
Appropriate neural representation of value and application of decision strategies are necessary to make optimal investment choices in real life. Normative human aging alters neural selectivity and control processing in brain regions implicated in value-based decision processing including striatal, medial temporal, and frontal areas. However, the specific neural mechanisms of how these age-related functional brain changes modulate value processing in older adults remain unclear. Here, young and older adults performed a lottery-choice functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which probabilities of winning different magnitudes of points constituted expected values of stakes. Increasing probability of winning modulated striatal responses in young adults, but modulated medial temporal and ventromedial prefrontal areas instead in older adults. Older adults additionally engaged higher responses in dorso-medio-lateral prefrontal cortices to more unfavorable stakes. Such extrastriatal involvement mediated age-related increase in risk-taking decisions. Furthermore, lower resting-state functional connectivity between lateral prefrontal and striatal areas also predicted lottery-choice task risk-taking that was mediated by higher functional connectivity between prefrontal and medial temporal areas during the task, with this mediation relationship being stronger in older than younger adults. Overall, we report evidence of a systemic neural mechanistic change in processing of probability in mixed-lottery values with age that increases risk-taking of unfavorable stakes in older adults. Moreover, individual differences in age-related effects on baseline frontostriatal communication may be a central determinant of such subsequent age differences in value-based decision neural processing and resulting behaviors.

PMID: 29909176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state brain activity changes associated with tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia: fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation decreased in the occipital lobe.

Mon, 06/18/2018 - 14:20
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Resting-state brain activity changes associated with tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia: fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation decreased in the occipital lobe.

Neuroscience. 2018 Jun 14;:

Authors: Zhang P, Li Y, Fan F, Li CR, Luo X, Yang F, Yao Y, Tan Y

Abstract
We explored resting-state brain activity and its potential links to clinical parameters in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) using fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations(fALFF). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 32 schizophrenic patients with TD (TD group), 31 without TD (NTD group), and 32 healthy controls (HC group). Clinical parameters including psychopathological symptoms, severity of TD, and cognitive function were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, respectively. Pearson correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the regions with altered fALFF values and clinical parameters in TD patients. The TD group showed decreased fALFF in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and the right calcarine sulcus (CAL) compared to the HC group, and decreased fALFF in the left cuneus compared to the NTD group. In the TD group, fALFF values in the left MOG and the right CAL were correlated separately with the delayed memory score (r = 0.44, p = 0.027; r = 0.43, p = 0.028, respectively). The AIMS total score was negatively correlated to the visuospatial/constructional score (r = -0.53, p = 0.005).Our findings suggested that resting-state brain activity changes were associated with TD in schizophrenic patients. There was an association between the decreased brain activity in the occipital lobe and the delayed memory cognition impairment in this population.

PMID: 29909076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Scale invariant rearrangement of resting state networks in the human brain under sustained stimulation.

Mon, 06/18/2018 - 14:20
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Scale invariant rearrangement of resting state networks in the human brain under sustained stimulation.

Neuroimage. 2018 Jun 14;:

Authors: Tommasin S, Mascali D, Moraschi M, Gili T, Assan IE, Fratini M, DiNuzzo M, Wise RG, Mangia S, Macaluso E, Giove F

Abstract
Brain activity at rest is characterized by widely distributed and spatially specific patterns of synchronized low-frequency blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations, which correspond to physiologically relevant brain networks. This network behaviour is known to persist also during task execution, yet the details underlying task-associated modulations of within- and between-network connectivity are largely unknown. In this study we exploited a multi-parametric and multi-scale approach to investigate how low-frequency fluctuations adapt to a sustained n-back working memory task. We found that the transition from the resting state to the task state involves a behaviourally relevant and scale-invariant modulation of synchronization patterns within both task-positive and default mode networks. Specifically, decreases of connectivity within networks are accompanied by increases of connectivity between networks. In spite of large and widespread changes of connectivity strength, the overall topology of brain networks is remarkably preserved. We show that these findings are strongly influenced by connectivity at rest, suggesting that the absolute change of connectivity (i.e., disregarding the baseline) may be not the most suitable metric to study dynamic modulations of functional connectivity. Our results indicate that a task can evoke scale-invariant, distributed changes of BOLD fluctuations, further confirming that low frequency BOLD oscillations show a specialized response and are tightly bound to task-evoked activation.

PMID: 29908935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Curvilinear locus coeruleus functional connectivity trajectories over the adult lifespan: a 7T MRI study.

Sun, 06/17/2018 - 13:00
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Curvilinear locus coeruleus functional connectivity trajectories over the adult lifespan: a 7T MRI study.

Neurobiol Aging. 2018 May 24;69:167-176

Authors: Jacobs HIL, Müller-Ehrenberg L, Priovoulos N, Roebroeck A

Abstract
The locus coeruleus (LC) plays a crucial role in modulating several higher order cognitive functions via its widespread projections to the entire brain. We set out to investigate the hypothesis that LC functional connectivity (FC) may fluctuate nonlinearly with age and explored its relation to memory function. To that end, 49 cognitively healthy individuals (19-74 years) underwent ultra high-resolution 7T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing. FC patterns from the LC to regions of the isodendritic core network and cortical regions were examined using region of interest-to-region of interest analyses. Curvilinear patterns with age were observed for FC between the left LC and cortical regions and the nucleus basalis of Meynert. A linear negative association was observed between age and LC-FC and ventral tegmental area. Higher levels of FC between the LC and nucleus basalis of Meynert or ventral tegmental area were associated with lower memory performance from age of 40 years onward. Thus, different LC-FC patterns early in life can signal subtle memory deficits. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of intact interactions between neurotransmitter systems for optimal cognitive aging.

PMID: 29908415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Individual differences in aesthetic engagement are reflected in resting-state fMRI connectivity: Implications for stress resilience.

Sun, 06/17/2018 - 13:00
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Individual differences in aesthetic engagement are reflected in resting-state fMRI connectivity: Implications for stress resilience.

Neuroimage. 2018 Jun 13;:

Authors: Williams PG, Johnson KT, Curtis BJ, King JB, Anderson JS

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Individual differences in aesthetic engagement-the propensity to be moved by art, nature, and beauty-are associated with positive health outcomes, as well as stress resilience. The purpose of the current study was to identify potential neural substrate mechanisms underlying individual differences in aesthetic engagement and reported proneness to aesthetic chill.
METHODS: Data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) 1200 Subjects Release were utilized. Resting-state fMRI connectivity was extracted for 361 regions in the brain including cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions for each participant, using participant-specific segmentation and parcellation of subcortical gray matter nuclei and a network-based statistics analytical approach. The Aesthetic Interests subcluster of the Openness to Experience scale (NEO-Five Factor Inventory; NEO-FFI) was used to characterize individual differences in aesthetic engagement and chill.
RESULTS: Participants reporting higher aesthetic engagement, particularly proneness to aesthetic chill responses, exhibited significantly higher connectivity between the default network and sensory and motor cortices, higher connectivity between the ventral default and salience networks, and decreased connectivity between the cerebellum and somatomotor cortex.
CONCLUSIONS: Current findings suggest that greater integration of the default mode network, involving processing of internal narrative, with neural representations of sensory perception and salience detection may be a mechanism underlying individual differences in aesthetic engagement. Thus, these individual differences may reflect general integration of environmental perception with internal emotional experience, which in turn may facilitate comfort with novelty, self-regulation, and positive adaptation to potentially stressful experiences.

PMID: 29908310 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Reduced higher-dimensional resting state fMRI dynamism in clinical high-risk individuals for schizophrenia identified by meta-state analysis.

Sun, 06/17/2018 - 13:00
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Reduced higher-dimensional resting state fMRI dynamism in clinical high-risk individuals for schizophrenia identified by meta-state analysis.

Schizophr Res. 2018 Jun 12;:

Authors: Mennigen E, Miller RL, Rashid B, Fryer SL, Loewy RL, Stuart BK, Mathalon DH, Calhoun VD

Abstract
New techniques to investigate functional network connectivity in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data have recently emerged. One novel approach, called meta-state analysis, goes beyond the mere cross-correlation of time courses of distinct brain areas and explores temporal dynamism in more detail, allowing for connectivity states to overlap in time and capturing global dynamic behavior. Previous studies have shown that patients with chronic schizophrenia exhibit reduced neural dynamism compared to healthy controls, but it is not known whether these alterations extend to earlier phases of the illness. In this study, we analyzed individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR, n = 53) for developing psychosis, patients in an early stage of schizophrenia (ESZ, n = 58), and healthy controls (HC, n = 70). ESZ individuals exhibit reduced neural dynamism across all domains compared to HC. CHR individuals also show reduced neural dynamism but only in 2 out of 4 domains investigated. Overall, meta-state analysis adds information about dynamic fluidity of functional connectivity.

PMID: 29907493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

HIV infection across aging: Synergistic effects on intrinsic functional connectivity of the brain.

Sat, 06/16/2018 - 11:40

HIV infection across aging: Synergistic effects on intrinsic functional connectivity of the brain.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Jun 12;:

Authors: Egbert AR, Biswal B, Karunakaran K, Pluta A, Wolak T, Rao S, Bornstein R, Szymańska B, Horban A, Firląg-Burkacka E, Sobańska M, Gawron N, Bieńkowski P, Sienkiewicz-Jarosz H, Ścińska-Bieńkowska A, Łojek E

Abstract
The objective of the study was to examine additive and synergistic effects of age and HIV infection on resting state (RS) intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) of the brain. We also aimed to assess relationships with neurocognition and determine clinical-, treatment-, and health-related factors moderating intrinsic brain activity in aging HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. The current report presents data on 54 HIV+ individuals (age M = 41, SD = 12 years) stabilized on cART and 54 socio-demographically matched healthy (HIV-) comparators (age M = 43, SD = 12 years), with cohort education mean of 16 years (SD = 12). Age at seroconversion ranged 20-55 years old. ANOVA assessed additive and synergistic effects of age and HIV in 133 ROIs. Bivariate statistics examined relationships of FC indices vulnerable to age-HIV interactions and neurocognitive domains T-scores (attention, executive, memory, psychomotor, semantic skills). Multivariate logistic models determined covariates of FC. This study found no statistically significant age-HIV effects on RS-FC after correcting for multiple comparisons except for synergistic effects on connectivity within cingulo-opercular network (CON) at the trending level. However, for uncorrected RS connectivity analyses, we observed HIV-related strengthening between regions of fronto-parietal network (FPN) and default mode network (DMN), and particular DMN regions and sensorimotor network (SMN). Simultaneously, FC weakening was observed within FPN and between other regions of DMN-SMN, in HIV+ vs. HIV- individuals. Ten ROI pairs revealed age-HIV interactions, with FC decreasing with age in HIV+, while increasing in controls. FC correlated with particular cognitive domains positively in HIV+ vs. negatively in HIV- group. Proportion of life prior-to-after HIV-seroconversion, post-infection years, and treatment determined within-FPN and SMN-DMN FC. In sum, highly functioning HIV+/cART+ patients do not reveal significantly altered RS-FC from healthy comparators. Nonetheless, the current findings uncorrected for multiple comparisons suggest that HIV infection may lead to simultaneous increases and decreases in FC in distinct brain regions even in patients successfully stabilized on cART. Moreover, RS-fMRI ROI-based analysis can be sensitive to age-HIV interactions, which are especially pronounced for inter-network FC in relation to neurocognition. Aging and treatment-related factors partially explain RS-FC in aging HIV+ patients.

PMID: 29906495 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered Brain Regional Homogeneity Following Electro-Acupuncture Stimulation at Sanyinjiao (SP6) in Women With Premenstrual Syndrome.

Sat, 06/16/2018 - 11:40
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Altered Brain Regional Homogeneity Following Electro-Acupuncture Stimulation at Sanyinjiao (SP6) in Women With Premenstrual Syndrome.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2018;12:104

Authors: Pang Y, Liu H, Duan G, Liao H, Liu Y, Feng Z, Tao J, Zou Z, Du G, Wan R, Liu P, Deng D

Abstract
Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a menstrual cycle-related disorder which causes physical and mood changes prior to menstruation and is associated with the functional dysregulation of the brain. Acupuncture is an effective alternative therapy for treating PMS, and sanyinjiao (SP6) is one of the most common acupoints used for improving the symptoms of PMS. However, the mechanism behind acupuncture's efficacy for relieving PMS symptoms remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the brain response patterns induced by acupuncture at acupoint SP6 in patients with PMS. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three females with PMS were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent resting-state fMRI data collection before and after 6 min of electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) at SP6. A regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach was used to compare patients' brain responses before and after EAS at SP6 using REST software. The present study was registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn, and the Clinical Trial Registration Number is ChiCTR-OPC-15005918. Results: EAS at SP6 elicited decreased ReHo value at the bilateral precuneus, right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle frontal cortex (MFC). In contrast, increased ReHo value was found at the bilateral thalamus, bilateral insula, left putamen and right primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Conclusions: Our study provides an underlying neuroimaging evidence that the aberrant neural activity of PMS patients could be regulated by acupuncture at SP6.

PMID: 29904344 [PubMed]

Consciousness in a multilevel architecture: Evidence from the right side of the brain.

Sat, 06/16/2018 - 11:40
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Consciousness in a multilevel architecture: Evidence from the right side of the brain.

Conscious Cogn. 2018 Jun 11;:

Authors: Velichkovsky BM, Krotkova OA, Kotov AA, Orlov VA, Verkhlyutov VM, Ushakov VL, Sharaev MG

Abstract
By taking into account Bruce Bridgeman's interest in an evolutionary framing of human cognition, we examine effective (cause-and-effect) connectivity among cortical structures related to different parts of the triune phylogenetic stratification: archicortex, paleocortex and neocortex. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 25 healthy subjects and spectral Dynamic Causal Modeling, we report interactions among 10 symmetrical left and right brain areas. Our results testify to general rightward and top-down biases in excitatory interactions of these structures during resting state, when self-related contemplation prevails over more objectified conceptual thinking. The right hippocampus is the only structure that shows bottom-up excitatory influences extending to the frontopolar cortex. The right ventrolateral cortex also plays a prominent role as it interacts with the majority of nodes within and between evolutionary distinct brain subdivisions. These results suggest the existence of several levels of cognitive-affective organization in the human brain and their profound lateralization.

PMID: 29903632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Multimodal Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia: Description and Dissemination.

Sat, 06/16/2018 - 11:40
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Multimodal Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia: Description and Dissemination.

Neuroinformatics. 2017 Oct;15(4):343-364

Authors: Aine CJ, Bockholt HJ, Bustillo JR, Cañive JM, Caprihan A, Gasparovic C, Hanlon FM, Houck JM, Jung RE, Lauriello J, Liu J, Mayer AR, Perrone-Bizzozero NI, Posse S, Stephen JM, Turner JA, Clark VP, Calhoun VD

Abstract
In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e.g., auditory sensory gating, auditory/visual multisensory integration, visual transverse patterning). Neuropsychological data were also acquired and genetic material via saliva samples were collected from most of the participants and have been typed for both genome-wide polymorphism data as well as genome-wide methylation data. Some results are also presented from the individual studies as well as from our data-driven multimodal analyses (e.g., multimodal examinations of network structure and network dynamics and multitask fMRI data analysis across projects). All data will be released through the Mind Research Network's collaborative informatics and neuroimaging suite (COINS).

PMID: 28812221 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of testosterone administration on threat and escape anticipation in the orbitofrontal cortex.

Fri, 06/15/2018 - 10:20
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Effects of testosterone administration on threat and escape anticipation in the orbitofrontal cortex.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018 May 30;96:42-51

Authors: Heany SJ, Bethlehem RAI, van Honk J, Bos PA, Stein DJ, Terburg D

Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone can decrease the functional coupling between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala. Theoretically this decoupling has been linked to a testosterone-driven increase of goal-directed behaviour in case of threat, but this has never been studied directly. Therefore, we placed twenty-two women in dynamically changing situations of escapable and inescapable threat after a within-subject placebo controlled testosterone administration. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we provide evidence that testosterone activates the left lateral OFC (LOFC) in preparation of active goal-directed escape and decouples this OFC area from a subcortical threat system including the central-medial amygdala, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray. This LOFC decoupling was specific to threatening situations, a point that was further emphasized by an absence of such decoupling in a second experiment focused on resting-state connectivity. These results not only confirm that testosterone administration decouples the LOFC from the subcortical threat system, but also show that this is specifically the case in response to acute threat, and ultimately leads to an increase in LOFC activity when the participant prepares a goal-directed action to escape. Together these results for the first time provide a detailed understanding of functional brain alterations induced by testosterone under threat conditions, and corroborate and extend the view that testosterone prepares the brain for goal-directed action in case of threat.

PMID: 29902666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Elucidating relations between fMRI, ECoG, and EEG through a common natural stimulus.

Fri, 06/15/2018 - 10:20
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Elucidating relations between fMRI, ECoG, and EEG through a common natural stimulus.

Neuroimage. 2018 Jun 11;:

Authors: Haufe S, DeGuzman P, Henin S, Arcaro M, Honey CJ, Hasson U, Parra LC

Abstract
Human brain mapping relies heavily on fMRI, ECoG and EEG, which capture different physiological signals. Relationships between these signals have been established in the context of specific tasks or during resting state, often using spatially confined concurrent recordings in animals. But it is not certain whether these correlations generalize to other contexts relevant for human cognitive neuroscience. Here, we address the case of complex naturalistic stimuli and ask two basic questions. First, how reliable are the responses evoked by a naturalistic audio-visual stimulus in each of these imaging methods, and second, how similar are stimulus-related responses across methods? To this end, we investigated a wide range of brain regions and frequency bands. We presented the same movie clip twice to three different cohorts of subjects (NEEG = 45, NfMRI = 11, NECoG = 5) and assessed stimulus-driven correlations across viewings and between imaging methods, thereby ruling out task-irrelevant confounds. All three imaging methods had similar repeat-reliability across viewings when fMRI and EEG data were averaged across subjects, highlighting the potential to achieve large signal-to-noise ratio by leveraging large sample sizes. The fMRI signal correlated positively with high-frequency ECoG power across multiple task-related cortical structures but positively with low-frequency EEG and ECoG power. In contrast to previous studies, these correlations were as strong for low-frequency as for high frequency ECoG. We also observed links between fMRI and infra-slow EEG voltage fluctuations. These results extend previous findings to the case of natural stimulus processing.

PMID: 29902585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cortical Statistical Correlation Tomography of EEG Resting State Networks.

Fri, 06/15/2018 - 10:20
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Cortical Statistical Correlation Tomography of EEG Resting State Networks.

Front Neurosci. 2018;12:365

Authors: Li C, Yuan H, Shou G, Cha YH, Sunderam S, Besio W, Ding L

Abstract
Resting state networks (RSNs) have been found in human brains during awake resting states. RSNs are composed of spatially distributed regions in which spontaneous activity fluctuations are temporally and dynamically correlated. A new computational framework for reconstructing RSNs with human EEG data has been developed in the present study. The proposed framework utilizes independent component analysis (ICA) on short-time Fourier transformed inverse source maps imaged from EEG data and statistical correlation analysis to generate cortical tomography of electrophysiological RSNs. The proposed framework was evaluated on three sets of resting-state EEG data obtained in the comparison of two conditions: (1) healthy controls with eyes closed and eyes open; (2) healthy controls and individuals with a balance disorder; (3) individuals with a balance disorder before and after receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. In these analyses, the same group of five RSNs with similar spatial and spectral patterns were successfully reconstructed by the proposed framework from each individual EEG dataset. These EEG RSN tomographic maps showed significant similarity with RSN templates derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Furthermore, significant spatial and spectral differences of RSNs among compared conditions were observed in tomographic maps as well as their spectra, which were consistent with findings reported in the literature. Beyond the success of reconstructing EEG RSNs spatially on the cortical surface as in fMRI studies, this novel approach defines RSNs further with spectra, providing a new dimension in understanding and probing basic neural mechanisms of RSNs. The findings in patients' data further demonstrate its potential in identifying biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

PMID: 29899686 [PubMed]

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