Immediate and Longitudinal Alterations of Functional Networks after Thalamotomy in Essential Tremor.
Front Neurol. 2016;7:184
Authors: Jang C, Park HJ, Chang WS, Pae C, Chang JW
Thalamotomy at the ventralis intermedius nucleus has been an effective treatment method for essential tremor, but how the brain network changes immediately responding to this deliberate lesion and then reorganizes afterwards are not clear. Taking advantage of a non-cranium-opening MRI-guided focused ultrasound ablation technique, we investigated functional network changes due to a focal lesion. To classify the diverse time courses of those network changes with respect to symptom-related long-lasting treatment effects and symptom-unrelated transient effects, we applied graph-theoretic analyses to longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data before and 1 day, 7 days, and 3 months after thalamotomy with essential tremor. We found reduced average connections among the motor-related areas, reduced connectivity between substantia nigra and external globus pallidum and reduced total connection in the thalamus after thalamotomy, which are all associated with clinical rating scales. The average connectivity among whole brain regions and inter-hemispheric network asymmetry show symptom-unrelated transient increases, indicating temporary reconfiguration of the whole brain network. In summary, thalamotomy regulates interactions over the motor network via symptom-related connectivity changes but accompanies transient, symptom-unrelated diaschisis in the global brain network. This study suggests the significance of longitudinal network analysis, combined with minimal-invasive treatment techniques, in understanding time-dependent diaschisis in the brain network due to a focal lesion.
PMID: 27822200 [PubMed - in process]
A novel resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signature of resilience to recurrent depression.
Psychol Med. 2016 Nov 8;:1-11
Authors: Workman CI, Lythe KE, McKie S, Moll J, Gethin JA, Deakin JF, Elliott R, Zahn R
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of patients with remitted major depressive disorder (MDD) will experience recurring episodes, whilst some develop resilience and remain in recovery. The neural basis of resilience to recurrence is elusive. Abnormal resting-state connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC) was previously found in cross-sectional studies of MDD, suggesting its potential pathophysiological importance. The current study aimed to investigate whether resting-state connectivity to a left sgACC seed region distinguishes resilient patients from those developing recurring episodes.
METHOD: A total of 47 medication-free remitted MDD patients and 38 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline. Over 14 months, 30 patients remained resilient whilst 17 experienced a recurring episode.
RESULTS: Attenuated interhemispheric left-to-right sgACC connectivity distinguished the resilient from the recurring-episode and control groups and was not correlated with residual depressive symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study revealed a neural signature of resilience to recurrence in MDD and thereby elucidates the role of compensatory adaptation in sgACC networks.
PMID: 27821193 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Biases in the Explore-Exploit Tradeoff in Addictions: The Role of Avoidance of Uncertainty.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Mar;41(4):940-8
Authors: Morris LS, Baek K, Kundu P, Harrison NA, Frank MJ, Voon V
We focus on exploratory decisions across disorders of compulsivity, a potential dimensional construct for the classification of mental disorders. Behaviors associated with the pathological use of alcohol or food, in alcohol use disorders (AUD) or binge-eating disorder (BED), suggest a disturbance in explore-exploit decision-making, whereby strategic exploratory decisions in an attempt to improve long-term outcomes may diminish in favor of more repetitive or exploitatory choices. We compare exploration vs exploitation across disorders of natural (obesity with and without BED) and drug rewards (AUD). We separately acquired resting state functional MRI data using a novel multi-echo planar imaging sequence and independent components analysis from healthy individuals to assess the neural correlates underlying exploration. Participants with AUD showed reduced exploratory behavior across gain and loss environments, leading to lower-yielding exploitatory choices. Obese subjects with and without BED did not differ from healthy volunteers but when compared with each other or to AUD subjects, BED had enhanced exploratory behaviors particularly in the loss domain. All subject groups had decreased exploration or greater uncertainty avoidance to losses compared with rewards. More exploratory decisions in the context of reward were associated with frontal polar and ventral striatal connectivity. For losses, exploration was associated with frontal polar and precuneus connectivity. We further implicate the relevance and dimensionality of constructs of compulsivity across disorders of both natural and drug rewards.
PMID: 26174598 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Quinolinic acid injection in mouse medial prefrontal cortex affects reversal learning abilities, cortical connectivity and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.
Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 07;6:36489
Authors: Latif-Hernandez A, Shah D, Ahmed T, Lo AC, Callaerts-Vegh Z, Van der Linden A, Balschun D, D'Hooge R
Intracerebral injection of the excitotoxic, endogenous tryptophan metabolite, quinolinic acid (QA), constitutes a chemical model of neurodegenerative brain disease. Complementary techniques were combined to examine the consequences of QA injection into medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of C57BL6 mice. In accordance with the NMDAR-mediated synapto- and neurotoxic action of QA, we found an initial increase in excitability and an augmentation of hippocampal long-term potentiation, converting within two weeks into a reduction and impairment, respectively, of these processes. QA-induced mPFC excitotoxicity impaired behavioral flexibility in a reversal variant of the hidden-platform Morris water maze (MWM), whereas regular, extended MWM training was unaffected. QA-induced mPFC damage specifically affected the spatial-cognitive strategies that mice use to locate the platform during reversal learning. These behavioral and cognitive defects coincided with changes in cortical functional connectivity (FC) and hippocampal neuroplasticity. FC between various cortical regions was assessed by resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) methodology, and mice that had received QA injection into mPFC showed increased FC between various cortical regions. mPFC and hippocampus (HC) are anatomically as well as functionally linked as part of a cortical network that controls higher-order cognitive functions. Together, these observations demonstrate the central functional importance of rodent mPFC as well as the validity of QA-induced mPFC damage as a preclinical rodent model of the early stages of neurodegeneration.
PMID: 27819338 [PubMed - in process]
Functional connectivity in cortico-subcortical brain networks underlying reward processing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Neuroimage Clin. 2016;12:796-805
Authors: Oldehinkel M, Beckmann CF, Franke B, Hartman CA, Hoekstra PJ, Oosterlaan J, Heslenfeld D, Buitelaar JK, Mennes M
BACKGROUND: Many patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display aberrant reward-related behavior. Task-based fMRI studies have related atypical reward processing in ADHD to altered BOLD activity in regions underlying reward processing such as ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the observed effects are region-specific or related to changes in functional connectivity of networks supporting reward processing. Here we use resting-state fMRI to comprehensively delineate the functional connectivity architecture underlying aberrant reward processing in ADHD.
METHODS: We assessed resting-state functional connectivity of four networks that support reward processing. These networks showed high spatial overlap with the default mode, fronto-parietal, lateral visual, and salience networks, yet only activity within the salience network was effectively sensitive to reward value. We parcelled these networks into their functional cortical and subcortical subregions and obtained functional connectivity matrices by computing Pearson correlations between the regional time series. We compared functional connectivity within each of the four networks between participants with ADHD and controls, and related functional connectivity to dimensional ADHD symptom scores across all participants (N = 444; age range: 8.5-30.5; mean age: 17.7).
RESULTS: We did not observe significant ADHD-related alterations in functional connectivity of the salience network, which included key reward regions. Instead, levels of inattention symptoms modulated functional connectivity of the default-mode and fronto-parietal networks, which supported general task processing.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study does not corroborate previous childhood evidence for functional connectivity alterations between key reward processing regions in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Our findings could point to developmental normalization or indicate that reward-processing deficits result from functional connectivity alterations in general task-related networks.
PMID: 27818941 [PubMed - in process]
The Primacy Effect in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Associations with Hippocampal Functional Connectivity.
Front Aging Neurosci. 2016;8:244
Authors: Brueggen K, Kasper E, Dyrba M, Bruno D, Pomara N, Ewers M, Duering M, Bürger K, Teipel SJ
Background: The "primacy effect," i.e., increased memory recall for the first items of a series compared to the following items, is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Memory task-fMRI studies demonstrated that primacy recall is associated with higher activation of the hippocampus and temporo-parietal and frontal cortical regions in healthy subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at resting state revealed that hippocampus functional connectivity (FC) with neocortical brain areas, including regions of the default mode network (DMN), is altered in aMCI. The present study aimed to investigate whether resting state fMRI FC between the hippocampus and cortical brain regions, especially the DMN, is associated with primacy recall performance in aMCI. Methods: A number of 87 aMCI patients underwent resting state fMRI and verbal episodic memory assessment. FC between the left or right hippocampus, respectively, and all other voxels in gray matter was mapped voxel-wise and used in whole-brain regression analyses, testing whether FC values predicted delayed primacy recall score. The delayed primacy score was defined as the number of the first four words recalled on the California Verbal Learning Test. Additionally, a partial least squares (PLS) analysis was performed, using DMN regions as seeds to identify the association of their functional interactions with delayed primacy recall. Results: Voxel-based analyses indicated that delayed primacy recall was mainly (positively) associated with higher FC between the left and right hippocampus. Additionally, significant associations were found for higher FC between the left hippocampus and bilateral temporal cortex, frontal cortical regions, and for higher FC between the right hippocampus and right temporal cortex, right frontal cortical regions, left medial frontal cortex and right amygdala (p < 0.01, uncorr.). PLS analysis revealed positive associations of delayed primacy recall with FC between regions of the DMN, including the left and right hippocampus, as well as middle cingulate cortex and thalamus (p < 0.04). In conclusion, in the light of decreased hippocampus function in aMCI, inter-hemispheric hippocampus FC and hippocampal FC with brain regions predominantly included in the DMN may contribute to residual primacy recall in aMCI.
PMID: 27818633 [PubMed - in process]