New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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Polymorphism of ERK/PTPRR Genes in Major Depressive Disorder at Resting-State Brain Function.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25

Polymorphism of ERK/PTPRR Genes in Major Depressive Disorder at Resting-State Brain Function.

Dev Neuropsychol. 2017 May 03;:1-10

Authors: Wang Y, Li L, Xu C, Cao X, Liu Z, Sun N, Zhang A, Li X, Zhang K

Abstract
The polymorphism of ERK and PTPRR in MDD is rarely reported. The present study investigated the association between the polymorphism of ERK/PTPRR and MDD at resting-state brain function using genomic imaging. It indicated that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changed significantly in various brain regions of MDD patients. The T/G allele of ERK-rs1267842 and G/C allele of PTPRR-rs1513105 showed abnormal ALFF and ReHo changes in cortex including superior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. The development of MDD may be related with the polymorphism of ERK-rs12678428 and PTPRR-rs1513105.

PMID: 28467119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

High-sensitivity neuroimaging biomarkers for the identification of amnestic mild cognitive impairment based on resting-state fMRI and a triple network model.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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High-sensitivity neuroimaging biomarkers for the identification of amnestic mild cognitive impairment based on resting-state fMRI and a triple network model.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2017 May 03;:

Authors: Yu E, Liao Z, Tan Y, Qiu Y, Zhu J, Han Z, Wang J, Wang X, Wang H, Chen Y, Zhang Q, Li Y, Mao D, Ding Z

Abstract
Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have indicated that Granger causality analysis (GCA) is a suitable method for revealing causal effects between brain regions. The purpose of the present study was to identify neuroimaging biomarkers with a high sensitivity to amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The resting-state fMRI data of 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 14 patients with aMCI, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated using GCA. This study focused on the "triple networks" concept, a recently proposed higher-order functioning-related brain network model that includes the default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN). As expected, GCA techniques were able to reveal differences in connectivity in the three core networks among the three patient groups. The fMRI data were pre-processed using DPARSFA v2.3 and REST v1.8. Voxel-wise GCA was performed using the REST-GCA in the REST toolbox. The directed (excitatory and inhibitory) connectivity obtained from GCA could differentiate among the AD, aMCI and HC groups. This result suggests that analysing the directed connectivity of inter-hemisphere connections represents a sensitive method for revealing connectivity changes observed in patients with aMCI. Specifically, inhibitory within-DMN connectivity from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to the hippocampal formation and from the thalamus to the PCC as well as excitatory within-SN connectivity from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) to the striatum, from the ECN to the DMN, and from the SN to the ECN demonstrated that changes in connectivity likely reflect compensatory effects in aMCI. These findings suggest that changes observed in the triple networks may be used as sensitive neuroimaging biomarkers for the early detection of aMCI.

PMID: 28466439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Beneficial neurocognitive effects of transcranial laser in older adults.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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Beneficial neurocognitive effects of transcranial laser in older adults.

Lasers Med Sci. 2017 May 02;:

Authors: Vargas E, Barrett DW, Saucedo CL, Huang LD, Abraham JA, Tanaka H, Haley AP, Gonzalez-Lima F

Abstract
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury). We investigated the cognitive effects of TILS in older adults (ages 49-90, n = 12) using prefrontal cortex measures of attention (psychomotor vigilance task (PVT)) and memory (delayed match to sample (DMS)), carotid artery intima-media thickness (measured by ultrasound), and evaluated the potential neural mechanisms mediating the cognitive effects of TILS using exploratory brain studies of electroencephalography (EEG, n = 6) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, n = 6). Cognitive performance, age, and carotid artery intima-media thickness were highly correlated, but all participants improved in all cognitive measures after TILS treatments. Baseline vs. chronic (five weekly sessions, 8 min each) comparisons of mean cognitive scores all showed improvements, significant for PVT reaction time (p < 0.001), PVT lapses (p < 0.001), and DMS correct responses (p < 0.05). The neural studies also showed for the first time that TILS increases resting-state EEG alpha, beta, and gamma power and promotes more efficient prefrontal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD)-fMRI response. Importantly, no adverse effects were found. These preliminary findings support the use of TILS for larger randomized clinical trials with this non-invasive approach to augment neurocognitive function in older people to combat aging-related and vascular disease-related cognitive decline.

PMID: 28466195 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Protein synthesis is associated with high-speed dynamics and broad-band stability of functional hubs in the brain.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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Protein synthesis is associated with high-speed dynamics and broad-band stability of functional hubs in the brain.

Neuroimage. 2017 Apr 29;:

Authors: Hellyer PJ, Pellizzon A, Barry E, Veronese M, Rizzo G, Tonietto M, Schütze M, Brammer M, Aurélio Romano-Silva M, Bertoldo A, Turkheimer FE

Abstract
L-[1-(11)C]leucine PET can be used to measure in vivo protein synthesis in the brain. However, the relationship between regional protein synthesis and on-going neural dynamics is unclear. We use a graph theoretical approach to examine the relationship between cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) and both static and dynamical measures of functional connectivity (measured using resting state functional MRI, R-fMRI). Our graph theoretical analysis demonstrates a significant positive relationship between protein turnover and static measures of functional connectivity. We compared these results to simple measures of metabolism in the cortex using [(18)F]FDG PET). Whilst some relationship between [(18)F]FDG binding and graph theoretical measures was present, there remained a significant relationship between protein turnover and graph theoretical measures, which were more robustly explained by L-[1-(11)C]Leucine than [(18)F]FDG PET. This relationship was stronger in dynamics at a faster temporal resolution relative to dynamics measured over a longer epoch. Using a Dynamic connectivity approach, we also demonstrate that broad-band dynamic measures of Functional Connectivity (FC), are inversely correlated with protein turnover, suggesting greater stability of FC in highly interconnected hub regions is supported by protein synthesis. Overall, we demonstrate that cerebral protein synthesis has a strong relationship independent of tissue metabolism to neural dynamics at the macroscopic scale.

PMID: 28465163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state connectivity and modulated somatomotor and default-mode networks in Huntington disease.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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Resting-state connectivity and modulated somatomotor and default-mode networks in Huntington disease.

CNS Neurosci Ther. 2017 May 02;:

Authors: Sánchez-Castañeda C, de Pasquale F, Caravasso CF, Marano M, Maffi S, Migliore S, Sabatini U, Squitieri F

Abstract
AIMS: To analyze brain functional connectivity in the somatomotor and default-mode networks (DMNs) of patients with Huntington disease (HD), its relationship with gray matter (GM) volume loss, and functional changes after pridopidine treatment.
METHODS: Ten patients and ten untreated controls underwent T1-weighted imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); four patients were also assessed after 3 months of pridopidine treatment (90 mg/d). The seed-based functional connectivity patterns from the posterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area (SMA), considered cortical hubs of the DMN and somatomotor networks, respectively, were computed. FMRIB Software Library voxel-based morphometry measured GM volume.
RESULTS: Patients had GM volume decrease in all cortical and subcortical areas of the somatomotor network with preservation of the SMA, and increased somatomotor and DMN connectivity. In DMN structures, functional connectivity impairment preceded volume loss. Pridopidine reduced the intensity of these aberrant connections.
CONCLUSION: The abnormal connectivity of the somatomotor and DMN observed in HD patients may represent an early dysfunction marker, as it preceded volume loss in DMN. Pridopidine reduced connectivity of these networks in all four treated patients, suggesting that connectivity is sensitive to treatment response.

PMID: 28464463 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The impact of hyperoxia on brain activity: A resting-state and task-evoked electroencephalography (EEG) study.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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The impact of hyperoxia on brain activity: A resting-state and task-evoked electroencephalography (EEG) study.

PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0176610

Authors: Sheng M, Liu P, Mao D, Ge Y, Lu H

Abstract
A better understanding of the effect of oxygen on brain electrophysiological activity may provide a more mechanistic insight into clinical studies that use oxygen treatment in pathological conditions, as well as in studies that use oxygen to calibrate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. This study applied electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy subjects and investigated how high a concentration of oxygen in inhaled air (i.e., normobaric hyperoxia) alters brain activity under resting-state and task-evoked conditions. Study 1 investigated its impact on resting EEG and revealed that hyperoxia suppressed α (8-13Hz) and β (14-35Hz) band power (by 15.6±2.3% and 14.1±3.1%, respectively), but did not change the δ (1-3Hz), θ (4-7Hz), and γ (36-75Hz) bands. Sham control experiments did not result in such changes. Study 2 reproduced these findings, and, furthermore, examined the effect of hyperoxia on visual stimulation event-related potentials (ERP). It was found that the main peaks of visual ERP, specifically N1 and P2, were both delayed during hyperoxia compared to normoxia (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). In contrast, the amplitude of the peaks did not show a change. Our results suggest that hyperoxia has a pronounced effect on brain neural activity, for both resting-state and task-evoked potentials.

PMID: 28464001 [PubMed - in process]

Using short-range and long-range functional connectivity to identify schizophrenia with a family-based case-control design.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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Using short-range and long-range functional connectivity to identify schizophrenia with a family-based case-control design.

Psychiatry Res. 2017 Apr 24;264:60-67

Authors: Guo W, Liu F, Chen J, Wu R, Li L, Zhang Z, Chen H, Zhao J

Abstract
Abnormal short-range and long-range functional connectivities (FCs) have been implicated in the neurophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was conducted to examine the potential of short-range and long-range FCs for differentiating the patients from the controls with a family-based case-control design. Twenty-eight first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia, 28 unaffected siblings of the patients (family-based controls, FBCs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. The data were analyzed by short-range and long-range FC analyses, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and support vector machine (SVM). Compared with the FBCs/HCs, the patients exhibit increased short-range positive FC strength (spFCS) and/or long-range positive FC strength (lpFCS) in the default-mode network (DMN) and decreased spFCS and lpFCS in the sensorimotor circuits. Furthermore, a combination of the spFCS values in the right superior parietal lobule and the lpFCS values in the left fusiform gyrus/cerebellum VI can differentiate the patients from the FBCs with high sensitivity and specificity. The findings highlight the importance of the DMN and sensorimotor circuits in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Combining with family-based case-control design may be a viable option to limit the confounding effects of environmental risk factors in neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia.

PMID: 28463748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Infraslow EEG and dynamic resting state network activity.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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Infraslow EEG and dynamic resting state network activity.

Brain Connect. 2017 May 02;:

Authors: Grooms JK, Thompson GJ, Pan WJ, Billings J, Schumacher EH, Epstein CM, Keilholz SD

Abstract
A number of studies have linked the BOLD signal to EEG signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (<1 Hz) has been little studied. Previously, work in rodents showed that infraslow local field potentials play a role in functional connectivity, particularly in the dynamic organization of large-scale networks. To examine the relationship between infraslow activity and network dynamics in humans, direct current (DC) EEG and resting state MRI data were acquired simultaneously. The DC EEG signals were correlated with the BOLD signal in patterns that resembled resting state networks. Subsequent dynamic analysis showed that the correlation between DC EEG and the BOLD signal varied substantially over time, even within individual subjects. The variation in DC EEG appears to reflect the time-varying contribution of different resting state networks. Further, some of the patterns of DC EEG and BOLD correlation are consistent with previous work demonstrating quasiperiodic spatiotemporal patterns of large scale network activity in resting state. These findings demonstrate that infraslow electrical activity is linked to BOLD fluctuations in humans and that it may provide a basis for large scale organization comparable to that observed in animal studies.

PMID: 28462586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pramipexole modulates interregional connectivity within the sensorimotor network.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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Pramipexole modulates interregional connectivity within the sensorimotor network.

Brain Connect. 2017 May 02;:

Authors: Ye Z, Hammer A, Münte T

Abstract
Pramipexole is widely prescribed to treat Parkinson's disease but has been reported to cause impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling. Recent neurocomputational models suggested that D2 agonists may distort functional connections between the striatum and the motor cortex, resulting in impaired reinforcement learning and pathological gambling. To examine how D2 agonists modulate the striatal-motor connectivity, we carried out a pharmacological resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a double-blind randomized within-subject cross-over design. We analyzed the medication-induced changes of network connectivity and topology with two approaches, an independent component analysis (ICA) and a graph theoretical analysis (GTA). The ICA identified the sensorimotor network (SMN) as well as other classical resting-state networks. Within the SMN, the connectivity between the right caudate nucleus and other cortical regions was weaker under pramipexole than under placebo. The GTA measured the topological properties of the whole-brain network at global and regional levels. Both the whole-brain network under placebo and that under pramipexole were identified as small-world networks. The two whole-brain networks were similar in global efficiency, clustering coefficient, small-world index and modularity. However, the degree of the right caudate nucleus decreased under pramipexole mainly due to the loss of the connectivity with the supplementary motor area, paracentral lobule, precentral and postcentral gyrus of the SMN. The two network analyses consistently revealed that pramipexole weakened the functional connectivity between the caudate nucleus and the SMN regions.

PMID: 28462585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

High spatial correspondence at a columnar level between activation and resting state fMRI signals and local field potentials.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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High spatial correspondence at a columnar level between activation and resting state fMRI signals and local field potentials.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 May 01;:

Authors: Shi Z, Wu R, Yang PF, Wang F, Wu TL, Mishra A, Chen LM, Gore JC

Abstract
Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in a resting state, and whether these spatial relationships vary across functionally distinct cortical areas are not known. To address these critical questions, we directly compared the spatial extents of stimulated activations and the local profiles of intervoxel resting state correlations for both high-resolution BOLD at 9.4 T and local field potentials (LFPs), using 98-channel microelectrode arrays, in functionally distinct primary somatosensory areas 3b and 1 in nonhuman primates. Anatomic images of LFP and BOLD were coregistered within 0.10 mm accuracy. We found that the point spread functions (PSFs) of BOLD and LFP responses were comparable in the stimulus condition, and both estimates of activations were slightly more spatially constrained than local correlations at rest. The magnitudes of stimulus responses in area 3b were stronger than those in area 1 and extended in a medial to lateral direction. In addition, the reproducibility and stability of stimulus-evoked activation locations within and across both modalities were robust. Our work suggests that the intrinsic resolution of BOLD is not a limiting feature in practice and approaches the intrinsic precision achievable by multielectrode electrophysiology.

PMID: 28461461 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mixed Signals: On Separating Brain Signal from Noise.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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Mixed Signals: On Separating Brain Signal from Noise.

Trends Cogn Sci. 2017 Apr 28;:

Authors: Uddin LQ

Abstract
Accurate description of human brain function requires the separation of true neural signal from noise. Recent work examining spatial and temporal properties of whole-brain fMRI signals demonstrates how artifacts from a variety of sources can persist after rigorous processing, and highlights the lack of consensus on how to address this challenge.

PMID: 28461113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

High-resolution Functional MRI Identified Distinct Global Intrinsic Functional Networks of Nociceptive Posterior Insula and S2 regions in Squirrel Monkey Brain.

Thu, 05/04/2017 - 13:25
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High-resolution Functional MRI Identified Distinct Global Intrinsic Functional Networks of Nociceptive Posterior Insula and S2 regions in Squirrel Monkey Brain.

Neuroimage. 2017 Apr 28;:

Authors: Wu R, Wang F, Yang PF, Min Chen L

Abstract
Numerous functional imaging and electrophysiological studies in humans and animals indicate that the two contiguous areas of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and posterior insula (pIns) are core regions in nociceptive processing and pain perception. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the S2-pIns connection serves as a hub for connecting distinct sensory and affective nociceptive processing networks in the squirrel monkey brain. At 9.4T, we first mapped the brain regions that respond to nociceptive heat stimuli with high-resolution fMRI, and then used seed-based resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) analysis to delineate and refine the global intrinsic functional connectivity circuits of the proximal S2 and pIns regions. In each subject, nociceptive (47.5°C) heat-evoked fMRI activations were detected in many brain regions, including primary somatosensory (S1), S2, pIns, area 7b, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), primary motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, thalamus, and caudate. Using the heat-evoked fMRI activation foci in S2 and pIns as the seeds, voxel-wise whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis revealed strong functional connections between contralateral S2 and pIns, as well as their corresponding regions in the ipsilateral hemisphere. Spatial similarity and overlap analysis identified each region as part of two distinct intrinsic functional networks with 7% overlap: sensory S2-S1-area 7b and affective pIns-ACC-PCC networks. Moreover, a high degree of overlap was observed between the combined rsFC maps of nociceptive S2 and pIns regions and the nociceptive heat-evoked activation map. In summary, our study provides evidence for the existence of two distinct intrinsic functional networks for S2 and pIns nociceptive regions, and these two networks are joined via the S2-pIns connection. Brain regions that are involved in processing nociceptive inputs are also highly interconnected at rest. The presence of robust and distinct S1-S2-area 7b and pIns-ACC-PCC rsFC networks under anesthesia underscores their fundamental roles in processing nociceptive information.

PMID: 28461059 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Abnormal functional connectivity within resting-state networks is related to rTMS-based therapy effects of treatment resistant depression: A pilot study.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45

Abnormal functional connectivity within resting-state networks is related to rTMS-based therapy effects of treatment resistant depression: A pilot study.

J Affect Disord. 2017 Apr 26;218:75-81

Authors: Ge R, Blumberger DM, Downar J, Daskalakis ZJ, Dipinto AA, Tham JCW, Lam R, Vila-Rodriguez F

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment resistant depression (TRD) remains a clinical challenge, and finding biomarkers that predict treatment response are a long sought goal to precisely indicate treatments. This pilot study aims to characterize brain dysfunction in TRD patients who underwent rTMS to define neuroimaging biomarkers that discriminate non-responders (NR) from responders (R).
METHODS: 20 TRD patients who underwent a course of rTMS to the left DLPFC were categorized into R and NR groups based on a >50% reduction in HRSD scores. Utilizing resting-state fMRI and ICA techniques, this study compared baseline RSNs of R vs. NR as well as TRD vs. healthy volunteer group. Regression analysis was conducted to link regions with clinical improvements. ROC analysis was further conducted to confirm the utility of the identified regions in classifying the patients.
RESULTS: Prior to treatment, non-responders displayed hyper-connectivity in ACC/VMPFC, PCC/pC, dACC and insula within RSNs that have been associated with MDD pathology. Regression results showed that regions associated with clinical improvements overlapped largely with regions that showed aberrant connectivity. ACC/VMPFC, dACC and left insula, which are hub regions of DMN and SN, exhibited excellent performance (highest sensitivity=100% and highest specificity=82%) in discriminating the response status of the patients.
LIMITATIONS: Relatively small sample size.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insight into fMRI predictive measures of treatment response to rTMS treatment, and demonstrate the potential of RSNs-based biomarkers in predicting response to rTMS treatment. Future studies are needed to validate the application of these measures to inform individual treatment indications.

PMID: 28460314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state functional connectivity between right anterior insula and right orbital frontal cortex correlate with insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Resting-state functional connectivity between right anterior insula and right orbital frontal cortex correlate with insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Neuroimage Clin. 2017;15:1-7

Authors: Fan J, Zhong M, Zhu X, Gan J, Liu W, Niu C, Liao H, Zhang H, Yi J, Tan C

Abstract
Few studies have explored the neurobiological basis of insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), though the salience network (SN) has been implicated in insight deficits in schizophrenia. This study was then designed to investigate whether resting-state (rs) functional connectivity (FC) of SN was associated with insight level in OCD patients. We analyzed rs-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 21 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI), 19 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI), and 24 healthy controls (HCs). Seed-based whole-brain FC and ROI (region of interest)-wise connectivity analyses were performed with seeds/ROIs in the bilateral anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The right AI-right medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC) connectivity was found to be uniquely decreased in the OCD-PI group, and the value of this aberrant connectivity correlated with insight level in OCD patients. In addition, we found that the OCD-GI group had significantly increased right AI-left dACC connectivity within the SN, relative to HCs (overall trend for groups: OCD-GI > OCD-PI > HC). Our findings suggest that abnormal right AI-right mOFC FC may mediate insight deficits in OCD, perhaps due to impaired encoding and integration of self-evaluative information about OCD-related beliefs and behaviors. Our findings indicate a SN connectivity dissociation between OCD-GI and OCD-PI patients and support the notion of considering OCD-GI and OCD-PI as two distinct disorder subtypes.

PMID: 28458998 [PubMed - in process]

Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy Reversed Insula Subregions Functional Connectivity in Asthmatic Patients.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy Reversed Insula Subregions Functional Connectivity in Asthmatic Patients.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:105

Authors: Zhang Y, Yang Y, Bian R, Yin Y, Hou Z, Yue Y, Chen H, Yuan Y

Abstract
Background: Group cognitive behavior therapy (GCBT) is an effective treatment in improving self-management behaviors and quality of life for asthmatic patients. However, the mechanisms by which GCBT improves asthma-related clinical symptoms remain unknown. Previous studies have indicated that insula is an important region involved in the neuropathology of asthma. Therefore, we examined the possible alteration of functional connectivity (FC) in insula subregions after GCBT in asthmatic patients. Methods: Forty-two asthmatic patients and 60 healthy controls (HCs) received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan and clinical assessments, 17 asthmatic patients completed GCBT treatment consisting of 8 sessions, and then received rs-fMRI scan and clinical assessments. Results: Asthmatic patients had greater left ventral anterior insula (vAI) FC with the left cerebellum posterior lobe, right middle temporal gyrus, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), but less FC with bilateral postcentral gyrus, bilateral occipital lobe, and left precentral gyrus compared with HCs. FC between left posterior insula and left medial frontal gyrus also increased in the patients. In addition, right vAI showed increased FC with right caudate and left putamen. FC between right dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and left calcarine however decreased. The increase in FC in insula subregions were significantly improved following GCBT. FC between the left vAI connectivity and left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with the percentage of improvement in 17-items Hamilton depression rating scale scores, and FC between the right dAI and left calcarine was negatively associated with the improvement percentage in asthma control test scores. Conclusions: This study in the first time demonstrated that GCBT led to significant improvement of FC between insula subregions and other brain regions. Clinical Trial Registration: An investigation of therapeutic mechanism in asthmatic patients: based on the results of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Registration number: ChiCTR-COC-15007442) (http://www.chictr.org.cn/usercenter.aspx).

PMID: 28458637 [PubMed - in process]

Resting state brain network function in major depression - Depression symptomatology, antidepressant treatment effects, future research.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Resting state brain network function in major depression - Depression symptomatology, antidepressant treatment effects, future research.

J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Apr 24;92:147-159

Authors: Brakowski J, Spinelli S, Dörig N, Bosch OG, Manoliu A, Holtforth MG, Seifritz E

Abstract
The alterations of functional connectivity brain networks in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been subject of a large number of studies. Using different methodologies and focusing on diverse aspects of the disease, research shows heterogeneous results lacking integration. Disrupted network connectivity has been found in core MDD networks like the default mode network (DMN), the central executive network (CEN), and the salience network, but also in cerebellar and thalamic circuitries. Here we review literature published on resting state brain network function in MDD focusing on methodology, and clinical characteristics including symptomatology and antidepressant treatment related findings. There are relatively few investigations concerning the qualitative aspects of symptomatology of MDD, whereas most studies associate quantitative aspects with distinct resting state functional connectivity alterations. Such depression severity associated alterations are found in the DMN, frontal, cerebellar and thalamic brain regions as well as the insula and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. Similarly, different therapeutical options in MDD and their effects on brain function showed patchy results. Herein, pharmaceutical treatments reveal functional connectivity alterations throughout multiple brain regions notably the DMN, fronto-limbic, and parieto-temporal regions. Psychotherapeutical interventions show significant functional connectivity alterations in fronto-limbic networks, whereas electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation result in alterations of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, the DMN, the CEN and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. While it appears clear that functional connectivity alterations are associated with the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD, future research should also generate a common strategy for data acquisition and analysis, as a least common denominator, to set the basis for comparability across studies and implementation of functional connectivity as a scientifically and clinically useful biomarker.

PMID: 28458140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation in premenstrual syndrome: A resting state fMRI study.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Altered fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation in premenstrual syndrome: A resting state fMRI study.

J Affect Disord. 2017 Apr 24;218:41-48

Authors: Liao H, Duan G, Liu P, Liu Y, Pang Y, Liu H, Tang L, Tao J, Wen D, Li S, Liang L, Deng D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is becoming highly prevalent among female and is characterized by emotional, physical and behavior symptoms. Previous evidence suggested functional dysregulation of female brain was expected to be involved in the etiology of PMS. The aim of present study was to evaluate the alterations of spontaneous brain activity in PMS patients based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
METHODS: 20 PMS patients and 21 healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scanning during luteal phase. All participants were asked to complete a prospective daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) questionnaire.
RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, the results showed that PMS patients had increased fALFF in bilateral precuneus, left hippocampus and left inferior temporal cortex, and decreased fALFF in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum at luteal phase. Moreover, the DRSP scores of PMS patients were negatively correlated with the mean fALFF in ACC and positively correlated with the fALFF in precuneus.
LIMITATIONS: (1) the study did not investigate whether or not abnormal brain activity differences between groups in mid-follicular phase, and within-group changes. between phases.(2) it was relatively limited sample size and the participants were young; (3) fALFF could not provide us with more holistic information of brain network;(4) the comparisons of PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were not involved in the study.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows abnormal spontaneous brain activity in PMS patients revealed by fALFF, which could provide neuroimaging evidence to further improve our understanding of the underlying neural mechanism of PMS.

PMID: 28458114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Changes in the interictal and early postictal diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance parameters in familial spontaneous epileptic cats.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Changes in the interictal and early postictal diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance parameters in familial spontaneous epileptic cats.

Epilepsy Res. 2017 Apr 23;133:76-82

Authors: Hamamoto Y, Hasegawa D, Mizoguchi S, Yu Y, Wada M, Kuwabara T, Fujiwara-Igarashi A, Fujita M

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The familial spontaneous epileptic cat (FSEC) is thought to be a good genetic model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the current study, cerebral diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to confirm the functional deficit zone in the FSEC and evaluate the effect of a single seizure on different brain regions.
METHODS: Six FSECs and six healthy control cats were used in this study. MRI was performed in the interictal state (resting state for control) and postictal state immediately after the vestibular stimulation-induced generalized epileptic seizure (control cats received the same stimulation as the FSECs). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy and perfusion parameters (i.e., relative regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and relative regional mean transit time (rMTT)) were measured in the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and gray and white matter.
RESULTS: In the interictal state, the rCBV and rMTT in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in FSECs, compared to the control. In the postictal state, FSECs had a significantly decreased ADC and an increased rCBV, rCBF, and rMTT in the hippocampus, and an increased rMTT in the amygdala, compared to the interictal state.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that FSECs had interictal hypoperfusion in the hippocampus, and postictal hypodiffusion and hyperperfusion in the hippocampus and/or amygdala. These findings suggested that the hippocampus and/or amygdala act as the functional deficit and expanded seizure-onset zones in FSECs.

PMID: 28458103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Negative Affectivity, Aging, and Depression: Results From the Neurobiology of Late-Life Depression (NBOLD) Study.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
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Negative Affectivity, Aging, and Depression: Results From the Neurobiology of Late-Life Depression (NBOLD) Study.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 03;:

Authors: Steffens DC, Wang L, Manning KJ, Pearlson GD

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Neuroticism is a common yet understudied condition in older adults. We hypothesized that presence of high negativity affectivity (NA), a key feature of neuroticism, would be associated with different prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity and connectivity patterns in depressed and never-depressed older adults.
METHODS: This is a baseline cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study of 52 depressed and 36 never-depressed older adults. Assessments included NA scores from the Type D Scale-14 and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores. All subjects had a 3T brain functional magnetic resonance imaging resting scan, neuronal activity determined by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) were obtained, and resting state functional connectivity (FC) analyses were performed. Analyses of covariance were conducted on ALFFs and FC to examine significant differences between groups.
RESULTS: In the ALFF analyses there were clearly different patterns between depressed and comparison groups in the correlation of ALFFs and NA. The correlation differences between the two groups were significant in the dorsomedial PFC, insula, amygdala, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). FC analyses revealed different between-group connectivity patterns. Significantly higher ventromedial PFC-amygdala FC with NA correlation was found in the depressed group than that in the never-depressed group.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms differential activity of the dorsal and ventral regions of the medial PFC in individuals with high neuroticism. Our findings suggest increased rostral medial PFC activity may be a marker of resilience to depression in the elderly and decreased anterior ventromedial PFC, PCC, and amygdala activity may be a result of successful emotion regulation in never-depressed higher NA individuals.

PMID: 28457805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Objective analysis of the topological organization of the human cortical visual connectome suggests three visual pathways.

Tue, 05/02/2017 - 12:45
Related Articles

Objective analysis of the topological organization of the human cortical visual connectome suggests three visual pathways.

Cortex. 2017 Apr 07;:

Authors: Haak KV, Beckmann CF

Abstract
The cortical visual system is composed of many areas serving various visual functions. In non-human primates, these are broadly organised into two distinct processing pathways: a ventral pathway for object recognition, and a dorsal pathway for action. In humans, recent theoretical proposals suggest the possible existence of additional pathways, but direct empirical evidence has yet to be presented. Here, we estimated the connectivity patterns between 22 human visual areas using resting-state functional MRI data of 470 individuals, leveraging the unprecedented data quantity and quality of the Human Connectome Project and a novel probabilistic atlas. An objective, data-driven analysis into the topological organisation of connectivity and subsequent quantitative confirmation revealed a highly significant triple dissociation between the retinotopic areas on the dorsal, ventral and lateral surfaces of the human occipital lobe. This suggests that the functional organisation of the human visual system involves not two but three cortical pathways.

PMID: 28457575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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