New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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The left middle temporal gyrus in the middle of an impaired social-affective communication network in social anxiety disorder.

Wed, 03/08/2017 - 12:55
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The left middle temporal gyrus in the middle of an impaired social-affective communication network in social anxiety disorder.

J Affect Disord. 2017 Mar 04;214:53-59

Authors: Yun JY, Kim JC, Ku J, Shin JE, Kim JJ, Choi SH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) reported changed patterns of the resting-state functional connectivity network (rs-FCN) between the prefrontal cortices and other prefrontal, amygdalar or striatal regions. Using a graph theory approach, this study explored the modularity-based community profile and patterns of inter-/intra-modular communication for the rs-FCN in SAD.
METHODS: In total, for 28 SAD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in resting-state and subjected to a graph theory analysis.
RESULTS: The within-module degree z-score for a hub region [out of a total of 10 hub regions ranked using the participation coefficient] named left middle temporal gyrus was impaired in SAD compared to HC, proportional to the severity of clinician-scored and patient-reported functional impairment in SAD.
LIMITATIONS: Most of participants included in this study were undergraduate students in their early-to-mid 20's.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the importance of functional communication from the left middle temporal gyrus with other opercular-insular-subcortical regions for better objective functioning and lesser subjective disability in SAD.

PMID: 28266321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Brain structural and functional signatures of impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease.

Wed, 03/08/2017 - 12:55
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Brain structural and functional signatures of impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease.

Mol Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 07;:

Authors: Imperiale F, Agosta F, Canu E, Markovic V, Inuggi A, Jecmenica-Lukic M, Tomic A, Copetti M, Basaia S, Kostic VS, Filippi M

Abstract
This study assessed brain structural and functional alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease and impulsive-compulsive behaviours (PD-ICB) compared with controls and PD no-ICB cases. Eighty-five PD patients (35 PD-ICB) and 50 controls were recruited. All subjects underwent three-dimensional T1-weighted, diffusion tensor (DT), and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS fMRI). We assessed cortical thickness with surface-based morphometry, subcortical volumes using FIRST, DT MRI metrics using region of interest and tractography approaches, and RS fMRI using a model free approach. Compared with controls, both PD groups showed a pattern of brain structural alterations in the basal ganglia (more evident in PD no-ICB patients), sensorimotor and associative systems. Compared with PD no-ICB, PD-ICB cases showed left precentral and superior frontal cortical thinning, and motor and extramotor white matter tract damage. Compared with controls, all patients had an increased functional connectivity within the visual network. Additionally, PD no-ICB showed increased functional connectivity of bilateral precentral and postcentral gyri within the sensorimotor network compared with controls and PD-ICB. Severity and duration of PD-ICB modulated the functional connectivity between sensorimotor, visual and cognitive networks. Relative to PD no-ICB, PD-ICB patients were characterised by a more severe involvement of frontal, meso-limbic and motor circuits. These data suggest ICB in PD as the result of a disconnection between sensorimotor, associative and cognitive networks with increasing motor impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and ICB duration. These findings may have important implications in understanding the neural substrates underlying ICB in PD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 7 March 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.18.

PMID: 28265121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Emergence of a hierarchical brain during infancy reflected by stepwise functional connectivity.

Tue, 03/07/2017 - 12:15

Emergence of a hierarchical brain during infancy reflected by stepwise functional connectivity.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Mar 06;:

Authors: Pendl SL, Salzwedel AP, Goldman BD, Barrett LF, Lin W, Gilmore JH, Gao W

Abstract
The hierarchical nature of the brain's functional organization has long been recognized, but when and how this architecture emerges during development remains largely unknown. Here the development of the brain's hierarchical organization was characterized using a modified stepwise functional connectivity approach based on resting-state fMRI in a fully longitudinal sample of infants (N = 28, with scans after birth, and at 1 and 2 years) and adults. Results obtained by placing seeds in early sensory cortices revealed novel hierarchical patterns of adult brain organization ultimately converging in limbic, paralimbic, basal ganglia, and frontoparietal brain regions. These findings are remarkably consistent with predictive coding accounts of neural processing that place these regions at the top of predictive coding hierarchies. Infants gradually developed toward this architecture in a region- and step-dependent manner, and displayed many of the same regions as adults in top hierarchical positions, starting from 1 year of age. The findings further revealed patterns of inter-sensory connectivity likely reflecting the emergence and development of multisensory processing strategies during infancy, the strengths of which were correlated with early cognitive development scores. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 28263011 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics: Effects of a current major depressive disorder diagnosis.

Tue, 03/07/2017 - 12:15

Resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics: Effects of a current major depressive disorder diagnosis.

Alcohol. 2017 Mar;59:17-25

Authors: Fein G, Camchong J, Cardenas VA, Stenger A

Abstract
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over an impulsive and compulsive drive toward excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences; our previous work demonstrated that successful abstinence is characterized by decreased resting-state synchrony (RSS) as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), within appetitive drive networks and increased RSS in emotion regulation and inhibitory executive control networks. Our hypothesis is that LTAA (Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics) with a current major depressive disorder (MDD) drank primarily to deal with the negative affect associated with their MDD and not because of a heightened externalizing diathesis (including heightened appetitive drive), and consequently, in achieving and maintaining abstinence, such individuals would not exhibit the RSS adaptations characteristic of pure alcoholics. We studied 69 NSAC (Non Substance Abusing Controls) and 40 LTAA (8 with current MDD, 32 without a current MDD) using resting-state fMRI and seed based connectivity analyses. In the inhibitory executive control network (nucleus accumbens vs. left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with a current MDD showed increased synchrony compared to NSAC. In the emotion regulation executive control network (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex vs. right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with current MDD did not show increased RSS. In the appetitive drive networks (nucleus accumbens vs, aspects of the caudate nucleus and thalamus), LTAA with a current MDD did not show a reduction of RSS compared to NSAC, but LTAA without a current MDD did. These results suggest different pathways to their alcohol dependence in LTAA with vs. without a current MDD, and different patterns of brain activity in long-term abstinence, suggesting different treatment needs.

PMID: 28262184 [PubMed - in process]

Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes.

Tue, 03/07/2017 - 12:15
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Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes.

Neural Plast. 2017;2017:1473783

Authors: Huang Z, Davis Iv HH, Wolff A, Northoff G

Abstract
Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n = 30). Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1-35). Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers' motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

PMID: 28261504 [PubMed - in process]

Frequency Clustering Analysis for Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based on Hilbert-Huang Transform.

Tue, 03/07/2017 - 12:15
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Frequency Clustering Analysis for Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based on Hilbert-Huang Transform.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2017;11:61

Authors: Wu X, Wu T, Liu C, Wen X, Yao L

Abstract
Objective: Exploring resting-state functional networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a hot topic in the field of brain functions. Previous studies suggested that the frequency dependence between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals may convey meaningful information regarding interactions between brain regions. Methods: In this article, we introduced a novel frequency clustering analysis method based on Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and a label-replacement procedure. First, the time series from multiple predefined regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted. Second, each time series was decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by using HHT. Third, the improved k-means clustering method using a label-replacement method was applied to the data of each subject to classify the ROIs into different classes. Results: Two independent resting-state fMRI dataset of healthy subjects were analyzed to test the efficacy of method. The results show almost identical clusters when applied to different runs of a dataset or to different datasets, indicating a stable performance of our framework. Conclusions and Significance: Our framework provided a novel measure for functional segregation of the brain according to time-frequency characteristics of resting state BOLD activities.

PMID: 28261074 [PubMed - in process]

Resting State fMRI Functional Connectivity Analysis Using Dynamic Time Warping.

Tue, 03/07/2017 - 12:15
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Resting State fMRI Functional Connectivity Analysis Using Dynamic Time Warping.

Front Neurosci. 2017;11:75

Authors: Meszlényi RJ, Hermann P, Buza K, Gál V, Vidnyánszky Z

Abstract
Traditional resting-state network concept is based on calculating linear dependence of spontaneous low frequency fluctuations of the BOLD signals of different brain areas, which assumes temporally stable zero-lag synchrony across regions. However, growing amount of experimental findings suggest that functional connectivity exhibits dynamic changes and a complex time-lag structure, which cannot be captured by the static zero-lag correlation analysis. Here we propose a new approach applying Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance to evaluate functional connectivity strength that accounts for non-stationarity and phase-lags between the observed signals. Using simulated fMRI data we found that DTW captures dynamic interactions and it is less sensitive to linearly combined global noise in the data as compared to traditional correlation analysis. We tested our method using resting-state fMRI data from repeated measurements of an individual subject and showed that DTW analysis results in more stable connectivity patterns by reducing the within-subject variability and increasing robustness for preprocessing strategies. Classification results on a public dataset revealed a superior sensitivity of the DTW analysis to group differences by showing that DTW based classifiers outperform the zero-lag correlation and maximal lag cross-correlation based classifiers significantly. Our findings suggest that analysing resting-state functional connectivity using DTW provides an efficient new way for characterizing functional networks.

PMID: 28261052 [PubMed - in process]

Brain Network Dynamics Adhere to a Power Law.

Tue, 03/07/2017 - 12:15
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Brain Network Dynamics Adhere to a Power Law.

Front Neurosci. 2017;11:72

Authors: Tomasi DG, Shokri-Kojori E, Volkow ND

Abstract
The temporal dynamics of complex networks such as the Internet are characterized by a power scaling between the temporal mean and dispersion of signals at each network node. Here we tested the hypothesis that the temporal dynamics of the brain networks are characterized by a similar power law. This realization could be useful to assess the effects of randomness and external modulators on the brain network dynamics. Simulated data using a well-stablished random diffusion model allowed us to predict that the temporal dispersion of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and that of the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) scale with their temporal means. We tested this hypothesis in open-access resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 66 healthy subjects. A robust power law emerged from the temporal dynamics of ALFF and lFCD metrics, which was insensitive to the methods used for the computation of the metrics. The scaling exponents (ALFF: 0.8 ± 0.1; lFCD: 1.1 ± 0.1; mean ± SD) decreased with age and varied significantly across brain regions; multimodal cortical areas exhibited lower scaling exponents, consistent with a stronger influence of external inputs, than limbic and subcortical regions, which exhibited higher scaling exponents, consistent with a stronger influence of internal randomness. Findings are consistent with the notion that external inputs govern neuronal communication in the brain and that their relative influence differs between brain regions. Further studies will assess the potential of this metric as biomarker to characterize neuropathology.

PMID: 28261049 [PubMed - in process]

Caudate-Precuneus functional connectivity is associated with obesity preventive eating tendency.

Tue, 03/07/2017 - 12:15
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Caudate-Precuneus functional connectivity is associated with obesity preventive eating tendency.

Brain Connect. 2017 Mar 01;:

Authors: Nakamura Y, Ikuta T

Abstract
There exists diversity among individuals in difficulty controlling body weight. Body weight control, or obesity prevention, requires cognitive control over ingestive behavior, which may account for the diverse ability of body weight control. The caudate nuclei, especially the dorsal area, have been shown to play critical roles in ingestive behaviors, which significantly influences body weight control. However, the practice of body weight control is dependent on the body weight status, since the current obesity status determines the need for body weight control. In order to elucidate the underlying neural mechanism that accounts for individual differences in obesity prevention, we aimed to isolate functional caudate connectivity responsible for the underlying tendency of obesity prevention, independent of the current obesity status, using resting state fMRI data, body mass index, and assessment of ingestive behavior from 185 individuals from NKI-Rockland sample. The underlying tendency of obesity prevention was estimated from body mass index (BMI) and behavioral and cognitive components of food intake. Functional connectivities between the caudate head and the whole brain were tested as a function of the estimated tendency in voxel-wise fashion. The bilateral precuneus showed inverse association between its connectivity to the caudate and the estimated tendency. Caudate-precuneus connectivity may have significant implications to understanding personal differences that accounts for the success in body weight control.

PMID: 28260392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Lowers Elevated Functional Connectivity in Depressed Adolescents.

Sun, 03/05/2017 - 11:20

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Lowers Elevated Functional Connectivity in Depressed Adolescents.

EBioMedicine. 2017 Feb 16;:

Authors: Chattopadhyay S, Tait R, Simas T, van Nieuwenhuizen A, Hagan CC, Holt RJ, Graham J, Sahakian BJ, Wilkinson PO, Goodyer IM, Suckling J

Abstract
Imaging studies have implicated altered functional connectivity in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether similar dysfunction is present in adolescent patients is unclear. The degree of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) may reflect abnormalities within emotional ('hot') and cognitive control ('cold') neural systems. Here, we investigate rsFC of these systems in adolescent patients and changes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was acquired from adolescent patients before CBT, and 24-weeks later following completed therapy. Similar data were obtained from control participants. Cross-sectional Cohort: From 82 patients and 34 controls at baseline, rsFC of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and pre-frontal cortex (PFC) was calculated for comparison. Longitudinal Cohort: From 17 patients and 30 controls with longitudinal data, treatment effects were tested on rsFC. Patients demonstrated significantly greater rsFC to left amygdala, bilateral supragenual ACC, but not with PFC. Treatment effects were observed in right insula connected to left supragenual ACC, with baseline case-control differences reduced. rsFC changes were significantly correlated with changes in depression severity. Depressed adolescents exhibited heightened connectivity in regions of 'hot' emotional processing, known to be associated with depression, where treatment exposure exerted positive effects, without concomitant differences in areas of 'cold' cognition.

PMID: 28258922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Psychotherapy With Somatosensory Stimulation for Endometriosis-Associated Pain: The Role of the Anterior Hippocampus.

Sun, 03/05/2017 - 11:20

Psychotherapy With Somatosensory Stimulation for Endometriosis-Associated Pain: The Role of the Anterior Hippocampus.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 16;:

Authors: Beissner F, Preibisch C, Schweizer-Arau A, Popovici RM, Meissner K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a gynecological disorder affecting 6%-10% of all women in their reproductive age. There is an emerging view in the literature that psychological trauma plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pelvic pain, one of the core symptoms of endometriosis. Here we report central nervous system mechanisms of a novel combination of psychotherapy and somatosensory stimulation that has recently shown remarkable effects in reducing pain, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in these patients.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial; 67 patients with severe endometriosis-associated pain (maximum pain: 7.6 ± 2.0, average pain: 4.5 ± 2.0 on a 10-point numeric rating scale) were included in the study and randomly allocated to intervention (35 patients) or waitlist control (32 patients) groups. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess brain connectivity of these patients at baseline, after 3 months of therapy, and after 6 months. The analysis focused on the hippocampus.
RESULTS: We identified a cortical network comprising the right anterolateral hippocampus-a region modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-and somatosensory, viscerosensory, and interoceptive brain regions. Regression analysis showed that reduction in connectivity predicted therapy-induced improvement in patients׳ anxiety.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a putative neurobiological mechanism underlying the potent combination of psychotherapy and somatic stimulation in treating symptoms of endometriosis.

PMID: 28258747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting state functional connectivity in women with bipolar disorder during clinical remission.

Sun, 03/05/2017 - 11:20
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Resting state functional connectivity in women with bipolar disorder during clinical remission.

Bipolar Disord. 2017 Mar 04;:

Authors: Syan SK, Minuzzi L, Smith M, Allega OR, Hall GB, Frey BN

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Periods of euthymia in bipolar disorder (BD) serve as a valuable time to study trait-based pathophysiology. The use of resting state functional connectivity (Rs-FC) can aid in the understanding of BD pathophysiology free of task or mood state biases. The present study investigated two unexplored areas of Rs-FC research in bipolar remission: (i) Rs-FC in women, controlling for the potential influence of premenstrual symptoms, and (ii) the use of both independent component analysis (ICA) and seed-based analysis (SBA) to investigate Rs-FC.
METHODS: We investigated Rs-FC of the default mode network, meso-paralimbic network and fronto-parietal network in a sample of 32 euthymic women with BD and 36 age-matched controls during the mid-follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Rs-FC was assessed with ICA and SBA using the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) as seed points for their respective resting state networks.
RESULTS: In BD, compared to controls, SBAs revealed increased coupling between the PCC and the angular gyrus (P=.002, false discovery rate [FDR]-corrected) and between the right dlPFC and the brainstem (P=.03, FDR-corrected). In BD only, PCC-angular gyrus coupling was correlated with anxiety symptoms. Group differences in Rs-FC using ICA did not survive multiple comparisons.
CONCLUSIONS: Negative findings from whole-brain ICA Rs-FC may reflect a state of clinical remission in BD. Heightened activation between the PCC and the angular gyrus and between the dlPFC and the brainstem may reflect (i) an abnormal trait integration of affective information during clinical remission and/or (ii) an adaptive compensatory mechanism required for clinical stabilization.

PMID: 28258639 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Regional homogeneity, resting-state functional connectivity and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation associated with creativity measured by divergent thinking in a sex-specific manner.

Sun, 03/05/2017 - 11:20
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Regional homogeneity, resting-state functional connectivity and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation associated with creativity measured by divergent thinking in a sex-specific manner.

Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 28;:

Authors: Takeuchi H, Taki Y, Nouchi R, Yokoyama R, Kotozaki Y, Nakagawa S, Sekiguchi A, Iizuka K, Yamamoto Y, Hanawa S, Araki T, Makoto Miyauchi C, Shinada T, Sakaki K, Nozawa T, Ikeda S, Yokota S, Daniele M, Sassa Y, Kawashima R

Abstract
Brain connectivity is traditionally thought to be important for creativity. Here we investigated the associations of creativity measured by divergent thinking (CMDT) with resting-state functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) measures and their sex differences. We examined these relationships in the brains of 1277 healthy young adults. Whole-brain analyses revealed a significant interaction between verbal CMDT and sex on (a) regional homogeneity within an area from the left anterior temporal lobe (b) on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the mPFC and the left inferior frontal gyrus and (c) on fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in several distinct areas, including the precuneus and middle cingulate gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and cerebellum. These interactions were mediated by positive correlations in females and negative correlations in males. These findings suggest that greater CMDT in females is reflected by (a) regional coherence (regional homogeneity) of brain areas responsible for representing and combining concepts as well as (b) the efficient functional connection (RSFC) between the key areas for the default state of cognitive activity and speech production, and (c) greater spontaneous neural activity (fALFF) during the resting of brain areas involved in frontal lobe functions, default cognitive activities, and language functions. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the associations between creativity and resting state brain connectivity patterns are different between males and females.

PMID: 28257930 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The effects of a mid-task break on the brain connectome in healthy participants: a resting-state functional MRI study.

Sun, 03/05/2017 - 11:20
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The effects of a mid-task break on the brain connectome in healthy participants: a resting-state functional MRI study.

Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 28;:

Authors: Sun Y, Lim J, Dai Z, Wong K, Taya F, Chen Y, Li J, Thakor N, Bezerianos A

Abstract
Although rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce mental fatigue and boost cognitive performance, the effects of taking a break on behavior are not consistent. Moreover, our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of rest breaks and how they modulate mental fatigue is still rudimentary. In this study, we investigated the effects of receiving a rest break on the topological properties of brain connectivity networks via a two-session experimental paradigm, in which one session comprised four successive blocks of a mentally demanding visual selective attention task (No-rest session), whereas the other contained a rest break between the second and third task blocks (Rest session). Functional brain networks were constructed using resting-state functional MRI data recorded from 20 healthy adults before and after the performance of the task blocks. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust time-on-task (TOT) declines, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction time as the test progressed and lower post-task self-reported ratings of engagement. However, we did not find a significant effect on task performance due to administering a mid-task break. Compared to pre-task measurements, post-task functional brain networks demonstrated an overall decrease of optimal small-world properties together with lower global efficiency. Specifically, we found TOT-related reduced nodal efficiency in brain regions that mainly resided in the subcortical areas. More interestingly, a significant block-by-session interaction was revealed in local efficiency, attributing to a significant post-task decline in No-rest session and a preserved local efficiency when a mid-task break opportunity was introduced in the Rest session. Taken together, these findings augment our understanding of how the resting brain reorganizes following the accumulation of prolonged task, suggest dissociable processes between the neural mechanisms of fatigue and recovery, and provide some of the first quantitative insights into the cognitive neuroscience of work and rest.

PMID: 28257928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Utility of the cumulative stress and mismatch hypotheses in understanding the neurobiological impacts of childhood abuse and recent stress in youth with emerging mental disorder.

Sat, 03/04/2017 - 17:00
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Utility of the cumulative stress and mismatch hypotheses in understanding the neurobiological impacts of childhood abuse and recent stress in youth with emerging mental disorder.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Mar 03;:

Authors: Paquola C, Bennett MR, Hatton SN, Hermens DF, Lagopoulos J

Abstract
Childhood abuse has an enduring impact on the brain's stress system. Whether the effects of childhood abuse and adulthood stress are additive (cumulative stress hypothesis) or interactive (mismatch hypothesis) is widely disputed, however. The primary aim of this study was to test the utility of the cumulative stress and mismatch hypotheses in understanding brain and behaviour. We recruited 64 individuals (aged 14-26) from a specialised clinic for assessment and early intervention of mental health problems in young people. A T1-weighted MRI, a resting state fMRI and clinical assessment were acquired from each participant. Grey matter estimates and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were determined using segmentation and seed-to-voxel rsFC analyses. We explored the effects of childhood abuse and recent stress on the structure and function of the regions of interest within general linear models. Worse psychiatric symptoms were significantly related to higher levels of life time stress. Individuals with mismatched childhood and recent stress levels had reduced left hippocampal volume, reduced ACC-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex rsFC and greater ACC-hippocampus rsFC, compared to individuals with matched childhood and recent stress levels. These results show specific utility of the cumulative stress hypothesis in understanding psychiatric symptomatology and of the mismatch hypothesis in modelling hippocampal grey matter, prefrontal rsFC, and prefrontal-hippocampal rsFC. We provide novel evidence for the enduring impact of childhood abuse on stress reactivity in a clinical population, and demonstrate the distinct effects of stress in different systems. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 28256777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Identifying topological motif patterns of human brain functional networks.

Sat, 03/04/2017 - 17:00
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Identifying topological motif patterns of human brain functional networks.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Mar 03;:

Authors: Wei Y, Liao X, Yan C, He Y, Xia M

Abstract
Recent imaging connectome studies demonstrated that the human functional brain network follows an efficient small-world topology with cohesive functional modules and highly connected hubs. However, the functional motif patterns that represent the underlying information flow remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated motif patterns within directed human functional brain networks, which were derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data with controlled confounding hemodynamic latencies. We found several significantly recurring motifs within the network, including the two-node reciprocal motif and five classes of three-node motifs. These recurring motifs were distributed in distinct patterns to support intra- and inter-module functional connectivity, which also promoted integration and segregation in network organization. Moreover, the significant participation of several functional hubs in the recurring motifs exhibited their critical role in global integration. Collectively, our findings highlight the basic architecture governing brain network organization and provide insight into the information flow mechanism underlying intrinsic brain activities. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 28256774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Human orbital and anterior medial prefrontal cortex: Intrinsic connectivity parcellation and functional organization.

Sat, 03/04/2017 - 17:00
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Human orbital and anterior medial prefrontal cortex: Intrinsic connectivity parcellation and functional organization.

Brain Struct Funct. 2017 Mar 02;:

Authors: Samara Z, Evers EA, Goulas A, Uylings HB, Rajkowska G, Ramaekers JG, Stiers P

Abstract
The orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) has been implicated in decision-making, reward and emotion processing, and psychopathology, such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human and monkey anatomical studies indicate the presence of various cortical subdivisions and suggest that these are organized in two extended networks, a medial and an orbital one. Attempts have been made to replicate these neuroanatomical findings in vivo using MRI techniques for imaging connectivity. These revealed several consistencies, but also many inconsistencies between reported results. Here, we use fMRI resting-state functional connectivity (FC) and data-driven modularity optimization to parcellate the OMPFC to investigate replicability of in vivo parcellation more systematically. By collecting two resting-state data sets per participant, we were able to quantify the reliability of the observed modules and their boundaries. Results show that there was significantly more than chance overlap in modules and their boundaries at the level of individual data sets. Moreover, some of these consistent boundaries significantly co-localized across participants. Hierarchical clustering showed that the whole-brain FC profiles of the OMPFC subregions separate them in two networks, a medial and orbital one, which overlap with the organization proposed by Barbas and Pandya (J Comp Neurol 286:353-375, 1989) and Ongür and Price (Cereb Cortex 10:206-219, 2000). We conclude that in vivo resting-state FC can delineate reliable and neuroanatomically plausible subdivisions that agree with established cytoarchitectonic trends and connectivity patterns, while other subdivisions do not show the same consistency across data sets and studies.

PMID: 28255676 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Impairments in Brain Perfusion, Metabolites, Functional Connectivity, and Cognition in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Patients: An Integrated MRI Study.

Sat, 03/04/2017 - 17:00
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Impairments in Brain Perfusion, Metabolites, Functional Connectivity, and Cognition in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Patients: An Integrated MRI Study.

Neural Plast. 2017;2017:8738714

Authors: Wang T, Xiao F, Wu G, Fang J, Sun Z, Feng H, Zhang J, Xu H

Abstract
Carotid artery stenosis without transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke is considered as "asymptomatic." However, recent studies have demonstrated that these asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (aCAS) patients had cognitive impairment in tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, and memory, indicating that "asymptomatic" carotid stenosis may not be truly asymptomatic. In this study, when 19 aCAS patients compared with 24 healthy controls, aCAS patients showed significantly poorer performance on global cognition, memory, and executive function. By utilizing an integrated MRI including pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) MRI, Proton MR Spectroscopy (MRS), and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI), we also found that aCAS patients suffered decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) mainly in the Left Frontal Gyrus and had decreased NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus and decreased connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the anterior part of default mode network (DMN).

PMID: 28255464 [PubMed - in process]

Resting state networks as simultaneously measured with fMRI and PET.

Sat, 03/04/2017 - 17:00
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Resting state networks as simultaneously measured with fMRI and PET.

J Nucl Med. 2017 Mar 02;:

Authors: Savio A, Fünger S, Tahmasian M, Rachakonda S, Manoliu A, Sorg C, Grimmer T, Calhoun V, Drzezga A, Riedl V, Yakushev I

Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies reported disruption of resting-state networks (RSNs) in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) captures neuronal activity that is in steady state at a longer time span and is less dependent of neuro-vascular coupling. Here, we aimed to identify RSNs in FDG-PET data and compare their spatial pattern with those obtained from simultaneously acquired resting state fMRI data in 22 middle-aged healthy subjects. Thirteen and 17 meaningful RSNs could be identified in PET and fMRI data, respectively. Spatial overlap was fair to moderate for the default mode, left central executive, primary and secondary visual, sensorimotor, cerebellar, and auditory networks. Despite recording different aspects of neural activity, similar RSNs were detected by both imaging modalities. The results argue for the common neural substrate of RSNs and encourage testing of the clinical utility of resting state connectivity in PET data.

PMID: 28254868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Families that fire together smile together: Resting state connectome similarity and daily emotional synchrony in parent-child dyads.

Sat, 03/04/2017 - 17:00
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Families that fire together smile together: Resting state connectome similarity and daily emotional synchrony in parent-child dyads.

Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 27;:

Authors: Lee TH, Miernicki ME, Telzer EH

Abstract
Despite emerging evidence suggesting a biological basis to our social tiles, our understanding of the neural processes which link two minds is unknown. We implemented a novel approach, which included connectome similarity analysis using resting state intrinsic networks of parent-child dyads as well as daily diaries measured across 14 days. Intrinsic resting-state networks for both parents and their adolescent child were identified using independent component analysis (ICA). Results indicate that parents and children who had more similar RSN connectome also had more similar day-to-day emotional synchrony. Furthermore, dyadic RSN connectome similarity was associated with children's emotional competence, suggesting that being neurally in-tune with their parents confers emotional benefits. We provide the first evidence that dyadic RSN similarity is associated with emotional synchrony in what is often our first and most essential social bond, the parent-child relationship.

PMID: 28254510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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