New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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Aberrant spontaneous neural activity and correlation with evoked-brain potentials in first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia.

Tue, 01/17/2017 - 14:45

Aberrant spontaneous neural activity and correlation with evoked-brain potentials in first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res. 2017 Jan 05;261:9-19

Authors: Li Z, Lei W, Deng W, Zheng Z, Li M, Ma X, Wang Q, Huang C, Li N, Collier DA, Gong Q, Li T

Abstract
The goals of the study were to analyze spontaneous neural activity between deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia (DS, NDS) using resting-state fMRI, and to investigate the correlation of fMRI with clinical features and evoked brain potentials. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was measured in 41 DS participants, 42 NDS participants, and 42 healthy controls. ALFF in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe was significantly decreased in patients, while ALFF in the right fusiform gyrus and the bilateral putamen was significantly increased. In schizophrenia patients, ALFF in the right putamen positively correlated with excited/activation on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EXC/ACT). In DS patients, ALFF in the right insula was significantly increased than in controls and positively correlated with S2-P50 amplitude of sensory gating P50. ALFF in the left cerebellum posterior lobe negatively correlated with negative symptoms and withdrawn on PANSS (PANSS-NS, PANSS-WIT), ALFF in the right putamen positively correlated with PANSS-WIT. In NDS patients, ALFF in the middle temporal gyrus decreased than in controls and negatively correlated with P3b subcomponent of P300 latency. ALFF in the left cerebellum posterior lobe negatively correlated with PANSS-EXC/ACT. The middle temporal gyrus in NDS or the right insula in DS may show spatiotemporal defects.

PMID: 28092779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Dexmedetomidine Disrupts the Local and Global Efficiencies of Large-scale Brain Networks.

Tue, 01/17/2017 - 14:45

Dexmedetomidine Disrupts the Local and Global Efficiencies of Large-scale Brain Networks.

Anesthesiology. 2017 Jan 16;:

Authors: Hashmi JA, Loggia ML, Khan S, Gao L, Kim J, Napadow V, Brown EN, Akeju O

Abstract
BACKGROUND: A clear understanding of the neural basis of consciousness is fundamental to research in clinical and basic neuroscience disciplines and anesthesia. Recently, decreased efficiency of information integration was suggested as a core network feature of propofol-induced unconsciousness. However, it is unclear whether this finding can be generalized to dexmedetomidine, which has a different molecular target.
METHODS: Dexmedetomidine was administered as a 1-μg/kg bolus over 10 min, followed by a 0.7-μg · kg · h infusion to healthy human volunteers (age range, 18 to 36 yr; n = 15). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during baseline, dexmedetomidine-induced altered arousal, and recovery states. Zero-lag correlations between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals extracted from 131 brain parcellations were used to construct weighted brain networks. Network efficiency, degree distribution, and node strength were computed using graph analysis. Parcellated brain regions were also mapped to known resting-state networks to study functional connectivity changes.
RESULTS: Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the local and global efficiencies of graph theory-derived networks. Dexmedetomidine also reduced the average brain connectivity strength without impairing the degree distribution. Functional connectivity within and between all resting-state networks was modulated by dexmedetomidine.
CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine is associated with a significant drop in the capacity for efficient information transmission at both the local and global levels. These changes result from reductions in the strength of connectivity and also manifest as reduced within and between resting-state network connectivity. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that conscious processing relies on an efficient system of information transfer in the brain.

PMID: 28092321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The effects of flavanone-rich citrus juice on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow: an acute, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy, young adults.

Tue, 01/17/2017 - 14:45

The effects of flavanone-rich citrus juice on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow: an acute, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy, young adults.

Br J Nutr. 2017 Jan 16;:1-9

Authors: Lamport DJ, Pal D, Macready AL, Barbosa-Boucas S, Fletcher JM, Williams CM, Spencer JP, Butler LT

Abstract
A plausible mechanism underlying flavonoid-associated cognitive effects is increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, behavioural and CBF effects following flavanone-rich juice consumption have not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of flavanone-rich juice is associated with acute cognitive benefits and increased regional CBF in healthy, young adults. An acute, single-blind, randomised, cross-over design was applied with two 500-ml drink conditions - high-flavanone (HF; 70·5 mg) drink and an energy-, and vitamin C- matched, zero-flavanone control. A total of twenty-four healthy young adults aged 18-30 years underwent cognitive testing at baseline and 2-h after drink consumption. A further sixteen, healthy, young adults were recruited for functional MRI assessment, whereby CBF was measured with arterial spin labelling during conscious resting state at baseline as well as 2 and 5 h after drink consumption. The HF drink was associated with significantly increased regional perfusion in the inferior and middle right frontal gyrus at 2 h relative to baseline and the control drink. In addition, the HF drink was associated with significantly improved performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at 2 h relative to baseline and the control drink, but no effects were observed on any other behavioural cognitive tests. These results demonstrate that consumption of flavanone-rich citrus juice in quantities commonly consumed can acutely enhance blood flow to the brain in healthy, young adults. However, further studies are required to establish a direct causal link between increased CBF and enhanced behavioural outcomes following citrus juice ingestion.

PMID: 28091350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Global Signal Regression Acts as a Temporal Downweighting Process in Resting-State fMRI.

Tue, 01/17/2017 - 14:45
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Global Signal Regression Acts as a Temporal Downweighting Process in Resting-State fMRI.

Neuroimage. 2017 Jan 09;:

Authors: Nalci A, Rao BD, Liu TT

Abstract
In resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI), the correlation between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals across different brain regions is used to estimate the functional connectivity of the brain. This approach has led to the identification of a number of resting-state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the task positive network (TPN). Global signal regression (GSR) is a widely used pre-processing step in rsfMRI that has been shown to improve the spatial specificity of the estimated resting-state networks. In GSR, a whole brain average time series, known as the global signal (GS), is regressed out of each voxel time series prior to the computation of the correlations. However, the use of GSR is controversial because it can introduce artifactual negative correlations. For example, it has been argued that anticorrelations observed between the DMN and TPN are primarily an artifact of GSR. Despite the concerns about GSR, there is currently no consensus regarding its use. In this paper, we introduce a new framework for understanding the effects of GSR. In particular, we show that the main effects of GSR can be well approximated as a temporal downweighting process in which the data from time points with relatively large GS magnitudes are greatly attenuated while data from time points with relatively small GS magnitudes are largely unaffected. Furthermore, we show that a limiting case of this downweighting process in which data from time points with large GS magnitudes are censored can also approximate the effects of GSR. In other words, the correlation maps obtained after GSR show a high degree of spatial similarity (including the presence of anticorrelations between the DMN and TPN) with maps obtained using only the uncensored (i.e. retained) time points. Since the data from these retained time points are unaffected by the censoring process, this finding suggests that the observed anticorrelations inherently exist in the data from time points with small GS magnitudes and are not simply an artifact of GSR.

PMID: 28089677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Multimodal evaluation of the amygdala's functional connectivity.

Tue, 01/17/2017 - 14:45
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Multimodal evaluation of the amygdala's functional connectivity.

Neuroimage. 2017 Jan 09;:

Authors: Kerestes R, Chase HW, Phillips ML, Ladouceur CD, Eickhoff SB

Abstract
The amygdala is one of the most extensively studied human brain regions and undisputedly plays a central role in many psychiatric disorders. However, an outstanding question is whether connectivity of amygdala subregions, specifically the centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF) nuclei, are modulated by brain state (i.e., task vs. rest). Here, using a multimodal approach, we directly compared meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and specific co-activation likelihood estimation (SCALE)-derived estimates of CM, LB and SF task-based co-activation to the functional connectivity of these nuclei as assessed by resting state fmri (rs-fmri). Finally, using a preexisting resting state functional connectivity-derived cortical parcellation, we examined both MACM and rs-fmri amygdala subregion connectivity with 17 large-scale networks, to explicitly address how the amygdala interacts with other large-scale neural networks. Analyses revealed strong differentiation of CM, LB and SF connectivity patterns with other brain regions, both in task-dependent and task-independent contexts. All three regions, however, showed convergent connectivity with the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) that was not driven by high base rate levels of activation. Similar patterns of connectivity across rs-fmri and MACM were observed for each subregion, suggesting a similar network architecture of amygdala connectivity with the rest of the brain across tasks and resting state for each subregion, that may be modified in the context of specific task demands. These findings support animal models that posit a parallel model of amygdala functioning, but importantly, also modify this position to suggest integrative processing in the amygdala.

PMID: 28089676 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional Connectivity of Vim Nucleus in Tremor- and Akinetic-/Rigid-Dominant Parkinson's Disease.

Tue, 01/17/2017 - 14:45
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Functional Connectivity of Vim Nucleus in Tremor- and Akinetic-/Rigid-Dominant Parkinson's Disease.

CNS Neurosci Ther. 2016 May;22(5):378-86

Authors: Zhang JR, Feng T, Hou YN, Chan P, Wu T

Abstract
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus (Vim) in the tremor- and akinetic-/rigid-related networks in Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS: Tremor-dominant (TD) and akinetic-/rigid-dominant (ARD) PD patients were recruited and scanned by resting-state functional MRI. Functional connectivity from the Vim nucleus was analyzed.
RESULTS: In the TD patients, the Vim nucleus exhibited increased connectivity with the cerebellum/dentate nucleus, primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, and parietal cortex compared with the controls, while the connections between the Vim nucleus and M1 and cerebellum/dentate nucleus had positive correlations with the tremor scores. In the ARD patients, the Vim nucleus only showed enhanced connectivity with the globus pallidus and limbic lobe compared with the controls, and no connectivity showed correlation against the akinetic-rigidity scores. TD patients had increased connectivity with the Vim nucleus in the cerebellum, M1, SMA, thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, and parietal cortex compared with ARD patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the Vim nucleus has an important role in the tremor-related network, but not in the akinetic-/rigid-related network. Our finding is helpful to explain the selective effect of Vim deep brain stimulation in PD.

PMID: 26849713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Combined spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) for continuous and dynamic lag structure analysis of MREG data.

Mon, 01/16/2017 - 14:25

Combined spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) for continuous and dynamic lag structure analysis of MREG data.

Neuroimage. 2017 Jan 11;:

Authors: Raatikainen V, Huotari N, Korhonen V, Rasila A, Kananen J, Raitamaa L, Keinänen T, Kantola J, Tervonen O, Kiviniemi V

Abstract
This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach. A rigorous noise exclusion criterion was applied for tICs to remove physiological pulsations, motion and system artefacts. All the de-noised tICs were used to calculate the null-distributions both for expected lag variability over time and over subjects. Lag analysis was done for the three highest correlating denoised tICA pairs. Mean time lag of 0.6s (± 0.5 std) and mean absolute correlation of 0.69 (± 0.08) between the highest correlating tICA pairs of DMN nodes was observed throughout the whole analyzed period. In dynamic 2min window analysis, there was large variability over subjects as ranging between 1-10sec. Directionality varied between these highly correlating sources an average 28.8% of the possible number of direction changes. The null models show highly consistent correlation and lag structure between DMN nodes both in continuous and dynamic analysis. The mean time lag of a null-model over time between all denoised DMN nodes was 0.0s and, thus the probability of having either DMNpcc or DMNvmpf as a preceding component is near equal. All the lag values of highest correlating tICA pairs over subjects lie within the standard deviation range of a null-model in whole time window analysis, supporting the earlier findings that there is a consistent temporal lag structure across groups of individuals. However, in dynamic analysis, there are lag values exceeding the threshold of significance of a null-model meaning that there might be biologically meaningful variation in this measure. Taken together the variability in lag and the presence of high activity peaks during strong connectivity indicate that individual avalanches may play an important role in defining dynamic independence in resting state connectivity within networks.

PMID: 28088482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Intrinsic Default Mode Network: Influence of fMRI Slice-Order Acquisition and Head-Motion Correction Methods.

Sat, 01/14/2017 - 13:50
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Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Intrinsic Default Mode Network: Influence of fMRI Slice-Order Acquisition and Head-Motion Correction Methods.

Brain Connect. 2017 Jan 13;:

Authors: Marchitelli R, Collignon O, Jovicich J

Abstract
Head-motion is a known challenge in resting-state fMRI studies for biasing functional connectivity among distinct anatomical regions. These persist even with small motion, limiting comparisons of groups with different head-motion characteristics. This motivates an interest in the optimization of acquisition and correction strategies to minimize motion sensitivity. In this test-retest study of healthy young volunteers (N=24), we investigate the effects of slice-order acquisitions (sequential or interleaved) and head-motion correction methods (volume- or slice-based) on the test-retest reproducibility of intrinsic connectivity of the default mode network (DMN). We evaluated the reproducibility of the entire DMN and each main node using the absolute percentage error, intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Jaccard coefficient. Regardless of slice-order acquisition, the slice-based motion correction method systematically estimated larger motion and returned significantly higher gray matter tSNR. Although consistently extracted across all acquisition and motion correction approaches, DMN connectivity was sensitive to these choices. However, the reproducibility of the whole DMN was stable and showed no sensitivity to the methods tested (absolute reproducibility=7%, ICC=0.47 and Jaccard=40%). Percentage errors and ICCs were consistent across single nodes but the Jaccard coefficients were not. The posterior cingulate was the most reproducible node (Jaccard=52%) whereas the anterior cingulate was the least reproducible (Jaccard=30%). Our study suggests that the slice-order and motion correction methods evaluated offer comparable sensitivity to detect DMN connectivity changes in a longitudinal study of individuals with low head-motion characteristics but that controlling for the consistency in acquisition and correction protocols is important in cross-sectional studies.

PMID: 28084793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Common and distinct brain networks underlying verbal and visual creativity.

Sat, 01/14/2017 - 13:50
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Common and distinct brain networks underlying verbal and visual creativity.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Jan 13;:

Authors: Zhu W, Chen Q, Xia L, Beaty RE, Yang W, Tian F, Sun J, Cao G, Zhang Q, Chen X, Qiu J

Abstract
Creativity is imperative to the progression of human civilization, prosperity, and well-being. Past creative researches tends to emphasize the default mode network (DMN) or the frontoparietal network (FPN) somewhat exclusively. However, little is known about how these networks interact to contribute to creativity and whether common or distinct brain networks are responsible for visual and verbal creativity. Here, we use functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate visual and verbal creativity-related regions and networks in 282 healthy subjects. We found that functional connectivity within the bilateral superior parietal cortex of the FPN was negatively associated with visual and verbal creativity. The strength of connectivity between the DMN and FPN was positively related to both creative domains. Visual creativity was negatively correlated with functional connectivity within the precuneus of the pDMN and right middle frontal gyrus of the FPN, and verbal creativity was negatively correlated with functional connectivity within the medial prefrontal cortex of the aDMN. Critically, the FPN mediated the relationship between the aDMN and verbal creativity, and it also mediated the relationship between the pDMN and visual creativity. Taken together, decreased within-network connectivity of the FPN and DMN may allow for flexible between-network coupling in the highly creative brain. These findings provide indirect evidence for the cooperative role of the default and executive control networks in creativity, extending past research by revealing common and distinct brain systems underlying verbal and visual creative cognition. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 28084656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Intra- and inter-network functional alterations in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment.

Sat, 01/14/2017 - 13:50
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Intra- and inter-network functional alterations in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Jan 13;:

Authors: Peraza LR, Nesbitt D, Lawson RA, Duncan GW, Yarnall AJ, Khoo TK, Kaiser M, Firbank MJ, O'Brien JT, Barker RA, Brooks DJ, Burn DJ, Taylor JP

Abstract
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is prevalent in 15%-40% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients at diagnosis. In this investigation, we study brain intra- and inter-network alterations in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in recently diagnosed PD patients and characterise them as either cognitive normal (PD-NC) or with MCI (PD-MCI). Patients were divided into two groups, PD-NC (N = 62) and PD-MCI (N = 37) and for comparison, healthy controls (HC, N = 30) were also included. Intra- and inter-network connectivity were investigated from participants' rs-fMRIs in 26 resting state networks (RSNs). Intra-network differences were found between both patient groups and HCs for networks associated with motor control (motor cortex), spatial attention and visual perception. When comparing both PD-NC and PD-MCI, intra-network alterations were found in RSNs related to attention, executive function and motor control (cerebellum). The inter-network analysis revealed a hyper-synchronisation between the basal ganglia network and the motor cortex in PD-NC compared with HCs. When both patient groups were compared, intra-network alterations in RSNs related to attention, motor control, visual perception and executive function were found. We also detected disease-driven negative synchronisations and synchronisation shifts from positive to negative and vice versa in both patient groups compared with HCs. The hyper-synchronisation between basal ganglia and motor cortical RSNs in PD and its synchronisation shift from negative to positive compared with HCs, suggest a compensatory response to basal dysfunction and altered basal-cortical motor control in the resting state brain of PD patients. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 28084651 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Supervoxel-Based Method for Groupwise Whole Brain Parcellation with Resting-State fMRI Data.

Sat, 01/14/2017 - 13:50
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A Supervoxel-Based Method for Groupwise Whole Brain Parcellation with Resting-State fMRI Data.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2016;10:659

Authors: Wang J, Wang H

Abstract
Node definition is a very important issue in human brain network analysis and functional connectivity studies. Typically, the atlases generated from meta-analysis, random criteria, and structural criteria are utilized as nodes in related applications. However, these atlases are not originally designed for such purposes and may not be suitable. In this study, we combined normalized cut (Ncut) and a supervoxel method called simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) to parcellate whole brain resting-state fMRI data in order to generate appropriate brain atlases. Specifically, Ncut was employed to extract features from connectivity matrices, and then SLIC was applied on the extracted features to generate parcellations. To obtain group level parcellations, two approaches named mean SLIC and two-level SLIC were proposed. The cluster number varied in a wide range in order to generate parcellations with multiple granularities. The two SLIC approaches were compared with three state-of-the-art approaches under different evaluation metrics, which include spatial contiguity, functional homogeneity, and reproducibility. Both the group-to-group reproducibility and the group-to-subject reproducibility were evaluated in our study. The experimental results showed that the proposed approaches obtained relatively good overall clustering performances in different conditions that included different weighting functions, different sparsifying schemes, and several confounding factors. Therefore, the generated atlases are appropriate to be utilized as nodes for network analysis. The generated atlases and major source codes of this study have been made publicly available at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/slic/.

PMID: 28082885 [PubMed - in process]

Sevoflurane Alters Spatiotemporal Functional Connectivity Motifs That Link Resting-State Networks during Wakefulness.

Sat, 01/14/2017 - 13:50
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Sevoflurane Alters Spatiotemporal Functional Connectivity Motifs That Link Resting-State Networks during Wakefulness.

Front Neural Circuits. 2016;10:107

Authors: Kafashan M, Ching S, Palanca BJ

Abstract
Background: The spatiotemporal patterns of correlated neural activity during the transition from wakefulness to general anesthesia have not been fully characterized. Correlation analysis of blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows segmentation of the brain into resting-state networks (RSNs), with functional connectivity referring to the covarying activity that suggests shared functional specialization. We quantified the persistence of these correlations following the induction of general anesthesia in healthy volunteers and assessed for a dynamic nature over time. Methods: We analyzed human fMRI data acquired at 0 and 1.2% vol sevoflurane. The covariance in the correlated activity among different brain regions was calculated over time using bounded Kalman filtering. These time series were then clustered into eight orthogonal motifs using a K-means algorithm, where the structure of correlated activity throughout the brain at any time is the weighted sum of all motifs. Results: Across time scales and under anesthesia, the reorganization of interactions between RSNs is related to the strength of dynamic connections between member pairs. The covariance of correlated activity between RSNs persists compared to that linking individual member pairs of different RSNs. Conclusions: Accounting for the spatiotemporal structure of correlated BOLD signals, anesthetic-induced loss of consciousness is mainly associated with the disruption of motifs with intermediate strength within and between members of different RSNs. In contrast, motifs with higher strength of connections, predominantly with regions-pairs from within-RSN interactions, are conserved among states of wakefulness and sevoflurane general anesthesia.

PMID: 28082871 [PubMed - in process]

Evaluating the Influence of Spatial Resampling for Motion Correction in Resting-State Functional MRI.

Sat, 01/14/2017 - 13:50
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Evaluating the Influence of Spatial Resampling for Motion Correction in Resting-State Functional MRI.

Front Neurosci. 2016;10:591

Authors: Yuan L, He H, Zhang H, Zhong J

Abstract
Head motion is one of major concerns in current resting-state functional MRI studies. Image realignment including motion estimation and spatial resampling is often applied to achieve rigid-body motion correction. While the accurate estimation of motion parameters has been addressed in most studies, spatial resampling could also produce spurious variance, and lead to unexpected errors on the amplitude of BOLD signal. In this study, two simulation experiments were designed to characterize these variance related with spatial resampling. The fluctuation amplitude of spurious variance was first investigated using a set of simulated images with estimated motion parameters from a real dataset, and regions more likely to be affected by spatial resampling were found around the peripheral regions of the cortex. The other simulation was designed with three typical types of motion parameters to represent different extents of motion. It was found that areas with significant correlation between spurious variance and head motion scattered all over the brain and varied greatly from one motion type to another. In the last part of this study, four popular motion regression approaches were applied respectively and their performance in reducing spurious variance was compared. Among them, Friston 24 and Voxel-specific 12 model (Friston et al., 1996), were found to have the best outcomes. By separating related effects during fMRI analysis, this study provides a better understanding of the characteristics of spatial resampling and the interpretation of motion-BOLD relationship.

PMID: 28082860 [PubMed - in process]

The relationship between BOLD fMRI response and the underlying white matter as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA): a systematic review.

Sat, 01/14/2017 - 13:50
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The relationship between BOLD fMRI response and the underlying white matter as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA): a systematic review.

Neuroimage. 2017 Jan 07;:

Authors: Warbrick T, Rosenberg J, Shah NJ

Abstract
Despite the relationship between brain structure and function being of fundamental interest in cognitive neuroscience, the relationship between the brain's white matter, measured using fractional anisotropy (FA), and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response is poorly understood. A systematic review of literature investigating the association between FA and fMRI BOLD response was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The PubMed and Web of Knowledge databases were searched up until 22.04.2016 using a predetermined set of search criteria. The search identified 363 papers, 28 of which met the specified inclusion criteria. Positive relationships were mainly observed in studies investigating the primary sensory and motor systems and in resting state data. Both positive and negative relationships were seen in studies using cognitive tasks. This systematic review suggests that there is a relationship between FA and the fMRI BOLD response and that the relationship is task and region dependent. Behavioural and/or clinical variables were shown to be essential in interpreting the relationships between imaging measures. The results highlight the heterogeneity in the methods used across papers in terms of fMRI task, population investigated and data analysis techniques. Further investigation and replication of current findings are required before definitive conclusions can be drawn.

PMID: 28082105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Regional Homogeneity Changes in Nicotine Addicts by Resting-State fMRI.

Fri, 01/13/2017 - 13:30

Regional Homogeneity Changes in Nicotine Addicts by Resting-State fMRI.

PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0170143

Authors: Chen H, Mo S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the brain functional changes of nicotine addicts compared with those of non-smokers and explore the objective biomarker for nicotine dependence evaluation.
METHODS: A total of 14 smokers and 11 non-smoking controls were recruited for this study. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and regional homogeneity (ReHo) were applied in the neural activity analysis. Two-sample t-test was performed to examine the voxel-wise difference between the smokers and the controls. Correlation analysis between the ReHo values and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores were performed to explore the biomarkers for the clinical characteristics of smokers.
RESULTS: The ReHo values from the right superior frontal gyrus of the Brodmann's area (BA) 9 to the right middle frontal gyrus and the ReHo value from the left and right precuneus (BA 23) to the left and right middle cingulum gyrus were lower in the smokers than in the non-smokers. The ReHo value in the precuneus (BA 23) was significantly and positively correlated with the FTND score of smokers.
CONCLUSION: The ReHo values in the right superior frontal gyrus and left precuneus can be used to separate the smokers from the non-smokers. In particular, the left precuneus is a potential neuroimaging biomarker for nicotine addicts.

PMID: 28081226 [PubMed - in process]

Maintenance and Representation of Mind Wandering during Resting-State fMRI.

Fri, 01/13/2017 - 13:30

Maintenance and Representation of Mind Wandering during Resting-State fMRI.

Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 12;7:40722

Authors: Chou YH, Sundman M, Whitson HE, Gaur P, Chu ML, Weingarten CP, Madden DJ, Wang L, Kirste I, Joliot M, Diaz MT, Li YJ, Song AW, Chen NK

Abstract
Major advances in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in the last two decades have provided a tool to better understand the functional organization of the brain both in health and illness. Despite such developments, characterizing regulation and cerebral representation of mind wandering, which occurs unavoidably during resting-state fMRI scans and may induce variability of the acquired data, remains a work in progress. Here, we demonstrate that a decrease or decoupling in functional connectivity involving the caudate nucleus, insula, medial prefrontal cortex and other domain-specific regions was associated with more sustained mind wandering in particular thought domains during resting-state fMRI. Importantly, our findings suggest that temporal and between-subject variations in functional connectivity of above-mentioned regions might be linked with the continuity of mind wandering. Our study not only provides a preliminary framework for characterizing the maintenance and cerebral representation of different types of mind wandering, but also highlights the importance of taking mind wandering into consideration when studying brain organization with resting-state fMRI in the future.

PMID: 28079189 [PubMed - in process]

Abnormalities of regional brain function in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

Fri, 01/13/2017 - 13:30

Abnormalities of regional brain function in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 12;7:40469

Authors: Pan P, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhang H, Guan D, Xu Y

Abstract
There is convincing evidence that abnormalities of regional brain function exist in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, many resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) have reported inconsistent results about regional spontaneous neuronal activity in PD. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis using the Seed-based d Mapping and several complementary analyses. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for eligible whole-brain rs-fMRI studies that measured ALFF differences between patients with PD and healthy controls published from January 1st, 2000 until June 24, 2016. Eleven studies reporting 14 comparisons, comparing 421 patients and 381 healthy controls, were included. The most consistent and replicable findings in patients with PD compared with healthy controls were identified, including the decreased ALFFs in the bilateral supplementary motor areas, left putamen, left premotor cortex, and left inferior parietal gyrus, and increased ALFFs in the right inferior parietal gyrus. The altered ALFFs in these brain regions are related to motor deficits and compensation in PD, which contribute to understanding its neurobiological underpinnings and could serve as specific regions of interest for further studies.

PMID: 28079169 [PubMed - in process]

Co-Variation of Peripheral Levels of miR-1202 and Brain Activity and Connectivity During Antidepressant Treatment.

Fri, 01/13/2017 - 13:30

Co-Variation of Peripheral Levels of miR-1202 and Brain Activity and Connectivity During Antidepressant Treatment.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Jan 12;:

Authors: Lopez JP, Pereira F, Richard-Devantoy S, Berlim M, Chachamovich E, Fiori LM, Niola P, Turecki G, Jollant F

Abstract
MicroRNAs are short non-coding molecules that play a major role in regulating gene expression. Peripheral levels of miR-1202 have been shown to predict and mediate antidepressant response. However, it is not clear to what extent these peripheral measures reflect central neural changes in vivo. We approached this problem with the combined use of peripheral miR-1202 measures and neuroimaging. At baseline and after 8 weeks of Desvenlafaxine (50-100 mg die), twenty patients were scanned with 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging, first at rest then during the Go/NoGo task, a classical test of response inhibition. Blood samples were collected at both time points. During resting state, lower baseline miR-1202 levels were predictive of increased connectivity from T0 to T8 between the posterior cingulate and the prefrontal, parietal and occipital cortices. Changes in miR-1202 levels following Desvenlafaxine treatment were negatively correlated with changes in activity in right precuneus within the default-mode network, and in connectivity between the posterior cingulate and the temporal and prefrontal cortices, and the precuneus. During the Go/NoGo task, baseline miR-1202 levels and changes in these levels were correlated with activity changes in different regions, including bilateral prefrontal, insular, cingulate, and temporal cortices, and left putamen and claustrum. Finally, secondary analyses in a subset of patients showed a trend for a significant correlation between miR-1202 levels and glutamate levels measured by spectroscopy. Changes in peripheral miR-1202 levels were therefore associated with changes in brain activity and connectivity in a network of brain regions associated with depression and antidepressant response. These effects may be mediated by the glutamatergic system.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 12 January 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.9.

PMID: 28079059 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Formation of Long-Term Locomotor Memories Is Associated with Functional Connectivity Changes in the Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Network.

Fri, 01/13/2017 - 13:30
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Formation of Long-Term Locomotor Memories Is Associated with Functional Connectivity Changes in the Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Network.

J Neurosci. 2017 Jan 11;37(2):349-361

Authors: Mawase F, Bar-Haim S, Shmuelof L

Abstract
Although motor adaptation is typically rapid, accumulating evidence shows that it is also associated with long-lasting behavioral and neuronal changes. Two processes were suggested to explain the formation of long-term motor memories: recall, reflecting a retrieval of previous motor actions, and faster relearning, reflecting an increased sensitivity to errors. Although these manifestations of motor memories were initially demonstrated in the context of adaptation experiments in reaching, indications of long-term motor memories were also demonstrated recently in other kinds of adaptation such as in locomotor adaptation. Little is known about the neural processes that underlie these distinct aspects of memory. We hypothesize that recall and faster relearning reflect different learning processes that operate at the same time and depend on different neuronal networks. Seventeen subjects performed a multisession locomotor adaptation experiment in the laboratory, together with resting-state and localizer fMRI scans, after the baseline and the locomotor adaptation sessions. We report a modulation of the cerebellar-thalamic-cortical and cerebellar-basal ganglia networks after locomotor adaptation. Interestingly, whereas thalamic-cortical baseline connectivity was correlated with recall, cerebellar-thalamic baseline connectivity was correlated with faster relearning. Our results suggest that separate neuronal networks underlie error sensitivity and retrieval components. Individual differences in baseline resting-state connectivity can predict idiosyncratic combination of these components.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The ability to shape our motor behavior rapidly in everyday activity, such as when walking on sand, suggests the existence of long-term motor memories. It was suggested recently that this ability is achieved by the retrieval of previous motor actions and by enhanced relearning capacity. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie these memory processes. We studied the modularity in long-term motor memories in the context of locomotor adaptation using resting-state fMRI. We show that retrieval and relearning effects are associated with separate locomotor control networks and that intersubject variability in learning and in the generation of motor memories could be predicted from baseline resting-state connectivity in locomotor-related networks.

PMID: 28077714 [PubMed - in process]

Altered fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation associated with cognitive dysfunction in first-episode drug-naïve major depressive disorder patients.

Fri, 01/13/2017 - 13:30
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Altered fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation associated with cognitive dysfunction in first-episode drug-naïve major depressive disorder patients.

BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 11;17(1):11

Authors: Huang M, Lu S, Yu L, Li L, Zhang P, Hu J, Zhou W, Hu S, Wei N, Huang J, Weng J, Xu Y

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that abnormities of both resting-state brain activity and cognitive dysfunction are frequently observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the underlying relationship between these two aspects is less investigated. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cognitive dysfunction and altered resting-state brain function in first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients.
METHODS: Twenty-five drug-naïve MDD patients and twenty-six age-, sex-, and education-matched normal controls were recruited in this study. Cognitive function was evaluated by using a series of validated test procedures. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained on a Philips 3.0 Tesla scanner and analysed using the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method. Correlations of fALFF values with cognitive dysfunction were further analysed.
RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed significantly fewer completed categories in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and decreased scores in the first and second subtests of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). However, the two groups did not differ in their performance on the Stroop Colour Word Test and Trail-making Test. MDD patients exhibited significantly decreased fALFF values in the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left middle frontal gyrus, and left inferior frontal gyrus, as well as increased fALFF values in the left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and the right caudate. Finally, the correlation analyses revealed that fALFF values in the left SFG and left ITG were associated with the number of WSCT completed categories and scores on the second subtest of the CPT in MDD, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that there is little evidence of an association between regional abnormalities in resting-state brain function and cognitive deficits in MDD.

PMID: 28077120 [PubMed - in process]

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